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Flashcards in Embryology Deck (101):
1

Where is sonic hedgehog gene produced?

base of limbs in zone of polarizing activity

2

What does sonic hedgehog gene do?

-Patterning along anterior-posterior axis
-CNS development

3

What can result from sonic hedgehog mutation?

holoprosencephaly

4

Where is Wnt-7 gene produced?

apical ectodermal ridge (thickened ectoderm at distal end of each developing limb)

5

What is the Wnt-7 gene for?

proper organization along dorsal ventral axis

6

Where is FGF gene produced?

apical ectodermal ridge

7

What does FGF gene do?

stimulates mitosis of underlying mesoderm (providing for lengthening of limbs)

8

What do the homeobox genes do?

involved in segmental organization of embryo in craniocaudal direction

9

What can hox mutations cause?

appendages in wrong locations

10

Origin: PNS

Neural crest

11

Origin: CNS

neuroectoderm

12

Origin: Adenohypophysis

Surface ectoderm (Rathke pouch)

13

Origin: Muscle

mesoderm

14

Origin: anal canal above pectinate line

endoderm

15

Origin: gut tube endothelium

endoderm

16

Origin: C cells of thyroid

neural crest

17

Origin: retina and optic nerve

Neuroectoderm

18

Origin: epithelial linings of oral cavity

surface ectoderm

19

Origin: bone

mesoderm

20

Origin: lens of eye

surface ectoderm

21

Origin: Pia and arachnoid mater

neural crest

22

Origin: urethra

endoderm (derived from UG sinus)

23

Origin: connective tissue

mesoderm

24

Origin: Lymphatics and blood

mesoderm

25

Origin: bones of skull

neural crest

26

Origin: anal canal below pectinate line

surface ectoderm

27

Origin: parotid, sweat, and mammary glands

Surface ectoderm

28

Origin: melanocytes

neural crest

29

Origin: chromaffin cells of adrenal medulla

neural crest

30

Origin: lungs, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, thymus, parathyroid, thyroid follicular cells,e ustacian tube

endoderm

31

Origin: nucleus pulposus of intervertebral disc

notochord

32

Origin: spleen

mesoderm

33

Origin: vagina, kidneys, testes, ovaries

Mesoderm (intermediate)

34

Origin: Ondontoblasts

neural crest cells

35

Origin: adrenal cortex

mesoderm

36

Origin: dermis

mesoderm

37

Origin: epidermis

surface ectoderm

38

Origin: sensory organs of ear and olfactory epithelium

surface ectoderm

39

Origin: aorticopulmonary septum

neural crest

40

Origin: peritoneum

Mesoderm

41

Origin: CV structures

mesoderm

42

Teratogenic effects: ACE inhibitors

renal damage

43

Teratogenic effects: alkylating agents

absence of digits
multiple anomalies

44

Teratogenic effects: aminoglycosides

CN VIII toxicity

45

Teratogenic effects: carbamazepine

Neural tube defects
craniofacial defects
fingernail hypoplasia
developmental delay
IUGR

46

Teratogenic effects: DES

Vaginal clear cell adenocarcinoma
congenital Mullerian anomalies

47

Teratogenic effects: folate antagonists

neural tube defects

48

Teratogenic effects: lithium

Ebstein anomaly (atrialized right ventricle)

49

Teratogenic effects: methimazole

aplasia cutis congenita

50

Teratogenic effects: phenytoin

fetal hydantoin syndrome (microcephaly, dysmorphic craniofacial features, hypoplastic nails and distal phalanges, cardiac defects, IUGR, intellectual disability)

51

Teratogenic effects: tetracyclines

discolored teeth

52

Teratogenic effects: thalidomide

limb defects (phocomelia, micromelia)

53

Teratogenic effects: valproate

inhibition of maternal folate absorption (neural tube defects)

54

Teratogenic effects: warfarin

Bone deformities
Fetal hemorrhage
Abortion
Ophthalmologic abnormalities

55

Teratogenic effects: cocaine

abnormal fetal growth
fetal addiction
placental abruption

56

Teratogenic effects: smoking

-Low birth weight
-Preterm labor
-Placental problems
-IUGR
-ADHD

57

Teratogenic effects: Iodine

congenital goiter (due to EXCESS)
hypothyroidism (cretinism due to LACK)

58

Teratogenic effects: maternal diabetes

-Caudal regression syndrome (anal atresia to sirenomelia)
-Congenital heart defects
-Neural tube defects

59

Teratogenic effects: vitamin A excess

-Spontaneous abortions
-Birth defects (cleft palate, heart abnormalities)

60

Teratogenic effects: x-rays

Microcephaly
Intellectual disability

61

Smooth philtrum, thin upper lip, small palpebral fissures, hypertelorism

FAS

62

Number of umbilical arteries

2

63

Number of umbilical veins

1

64

What are the umbilical arteries and veins derived from?

allantois

65

When is the allantois formed?

3rd week (extends from yolk sac into UG sinus)

66

What does the allantois become?

urachus (duct between fetal bladder and yolk sac)

67

What are long-term consequencesof urachal cyst?

infection
adenocarcinoma

68

What is the omphalo-mesenteric duct?

vitelline duct

69

When does the vitelline duct obliterate?

7th week

70

Is a Meckel diverticulum true or false?

true

71

Where do branchial clefts (grooves) arise from?

ectoderm

72

Where do branchial arches arise from?

mesoderm (muscles, arteries)
neural crest (bones, cartilage)

73

Where do branchial pouches arise from?

endoderm

74

What does 1st branchial cleft form?

external auditory meatus

75

What is a persistent cervical sinus (2nd-4th branchial cleft)?

branchial cleft cyst (lateral neck)

76

Which branchial arch forms:
Mandible
Malleus, incus
sphenoMandibular ligament

1st

77

Which branchial arch forms:
Thryoid cartilage
Cricoid cartilage
Arytenoids
Corniculate cartilage
Cuneiform cartilage

4th-6th

78

Which branchial arch forms:
Stapes
Styloid process
Lesser horn of hyoid
Stylohyoid ligament

2nd

79

Which branchial arch forms the greater horn of the hyoid?

3rd

80

Which branchial arch forms muscles of mastication?

1st

81

Which branchial arch forms stylopharyngeus?

3rd

82

Which branchial arch forms muscles of facial expression and stapedius?

2nd

83

Which branchial arch forms all intrinsic muscles of larynx except cricothyroid?

6th

84

Which branchial arch forms most pharyngeal constrictors, cricothyroid, and levator veli palatini?

4th

85

What nerves innervate 1st branchial arch?

V2 and V3

86

What nerves innervate 2nd branchial arch?

CN VII

87

What nerve innervates 3rd branchial arch?

CN IX

88

What nerve innervates 4th branchial arch?

Superior laryngeal branch of X

89

What nerve innervates 6th branchial arch?

Recurrent laryngeal branch of X

90

What is Treacher Collins?

1st arch neural crest fails to migrate

91

What is congenital pharyngo-cutaneous fistula?

persistence of cleft and pouch (2nd) so get fistula between tonsilar area and lateral neck

92

What arches for posterior 1/3 of tongue?

3 and 4

93

What is the mnemonic for branchial arch derivatives?

When at the golden arches, children CHEW (1), SMILE (2) then swallow STYLishly (3) or simply SWALLOW (4) then SPEAK (6)

94

What does 1st branchial pouch become?

Endoderm-lined structures of ear

95

What does 2nd branchial pouch become?

epithelial lining of palatine tonsil

96

What does 3rd branchial pouch become?

-Dorsal wings (inferior parathyroids)
-Ventral wings (thalamus)

97

What does the 4th branchial pouch become?

-Dorsal winges (superior parathyroids)

98

Male gubernaculum remnant

anchors testes within scrotum

99

Female gubernaculum remnant

ovarian ligament + round ligament of uterus

100

Processus vaginalis male remnant

TUnica vaginalis

101

Processus vaginalis female remnant

obliterated