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Flashcards in Embryology Deck (21):
1

Define a zygote

Single fertilised egg

2

When is the term embryo used?

Fertilisation to week 8

3

When is the term foetus used?

Week 9 until birth

4

State the 6 stages of embryogenesis

Gametogenesis - fertilisation - cleavage - gastrulation - formation of body plan - organogenesis

5

What is gametogenesis?

Germ cell formation

6

Where does fertilisation take place?

The ampulla

7

What is cleavage?

Rapid cell division to form a morula (mass of cells undestingushable from each other

8

At what point can the embryo begin to differentiate?

When it has formed a blastocysts

9

What is gastrulation?

The formation of germ layers in week 3

10

What are the three germ layers?

Ectoderm, endoderm and mesoderm

11

What is organogenesis?

Formation of organs and systems which will continue through foetal development

12

What does the trophoblast become?

Structural component, drives implantation

13

What does the embryoblast become?

Yolk sac

14

What hatches from the zonal pellucid?

Blastocyst

15

What does the ectoderm become?

skin and nervous system

16

What does the mesoderm become?

Axial skeleton, urogenital system and lining of body wall

17

What does the endoderm become?

Lining of gut tube and respiratory tract

18

4 Types of Congenital Heart Defects

Atrial Septal Defects
Ventricular Septal Defects
Outflow Tract Defects
Combination

19

Which type of ASD doesn't result in a mix of blood and why?

Patent foramen ovale - due to high pressure in the left ventricle

20

Tetralogy of Fallot - 4 factors?

Pulmonary stenosis
Hypertrophy of the right ventricle
Overriding arch of the aorta
Ventricular septal defects

21

Patent ductus arteriosus

Communication between the descending aorta and the pulmonary artery