Emerging Treatments for Drug Dependence and Addiction Flashcards Preview

Frontiers in Biomedicine > Emerging Treatments for Drug Dependence and Addiction > Flashcards

Flashcards in Emerging Treatments for Drug Dependence and Addiction Deck (24):
1

Difference between drug disuse and drug use disorder

Drug disuse isn't sanctioned by society, but has no harm associated.
Drug use disorder results in harm.

2

Difference between substance dependence and addiction

Dependence is a homeostatic response to drug, a physical need.
Addiction implies a psychological need.

3

Prevalence of substance use disorders and dependence

Substance use disorders - 15-20% population
Dependence - 6-8% of population

4

Drug group that is increasing in prevalence of abuse

Opioids

5

When are people most vulnerable to addiction?

Between late adolescence and twenties

6

Effect of methamphetamine addiction on brain

Decreased dopamine receptor density

7

Evidence for genetic component of alcoholism

Schuckit found teenagers who had never had alcohol before. Those who had alcoholics in the family didn't get as affected by alcohol.

8

Focus of addiction treatment

Reduce morbidity and mortality

9

Comparison of relapse rates of alcoholism and other chronic diseases

Very similar.
Type I diabetes, hypertension, asthma all similar.

10

Drug that most users are physically addicted to

Nicotine

11

Why might nicotine be more physically addictive than other drugs?

Higher number of bolus doses of nicotine when smoking.

12

Group that nicotine replacement therapy is most effective on

Heavy smokers

13

Most common relapse prevention pharmacotherapeutic agents in Australia

Varenicline, bupropion

14

Phenotype that results in less addiction to nicotine

People with a slower nicotine metabolism are more likely to quit, have less damage to organs

15

Drug that reduces rate of nicotine metabolism

Methoxsalen

16

Effects of chronic alcohol abuse on brain

Downregulate GABA system, upregulate glutamate system

17

What happens during alcohol withdrawal?

Glutaminergic hyperactivity, hyperadrenergic state

18

Drug used to treat alcohol withdrawl

Benzodiazepines

19

Drug that induces vomiting when alcohol is ingested

Antabuse

20

Opioid drug that is becoming more common in Australia

Oxycodone

21

Effects of methodone and buprenorphine

Don't really stop addiction, but decrease mortality 6-fold.

22

Short-acting drug that reverses effects of opioids

Naxolone

23

Buprenorphine and naxolone combination tablet

Suboxone

24

Suboxone

Contains buprenorphine and naxolone.
Naxolone oral bioavailability is 0%. When taken orally, only buprenorphine works.
If someone tries to inject tablet, naxolone triggers withdrawl symptoms, as IV bioavailability is ~100%