Flashcards in Emotion Deck (39):
What are emotions
Affective states that involve a pattern of cognitive, physiological and behavioural reactions to events
2 functions of emotions
adaptive and social communication
what did Plutchik 1980) [of the plutchik wheel] say about emotions that is arguable?
that emotions are purely mental, which is arguable due to differences in physiological responses
what did levenson et al (1990) show in their study dissociating emotions according to physical responses?
that there are reliable differences in physiological responses from different emotions, independant of age, gender, culture and occupation.
what were darwins 3 principles of emotion?
1.principle of servicable habits (ex raising eyebrows to increase field of vision)
2. principle of antithesis ( ex shrugging is the biol. opposite to anger where shoulders are squared)
3. expressive habits (due to discharge of excitement following build up in NS, ex. vocalizing pain)
what did darwins "chief expressive action indicate?
a shift from purely mental to a functionalist view for the role of emotions
what is the name given to phobias ivolving primal/natural eliciting stimuli?
what is appraisal?
A cognitive process which attributes meaning and significance(consciously or unconsciously) to eliciting stimuli
what does cognitive appraisal allow for?
the experience of different emotions following arousal due to difference attributed meanings/significances
Zuckerman et al 1976 showed that
F were better judges of recognition of emotion than M
why is base drive said to be > 0?
Because if contentment achieved at eqm (=0) then at 0 would not be in any state, which contradicts our seeking for rewards etc and our curiosity (otherwise would reach 0 then just stay there?)
what is the role of the endocrine system in the physiological response
pumping hormones into the bloodstream
what is the role of the autonomic NS in the physiological response
stimulates the organs and muscles directly
what does the galvanic skin response measure?
the electrical resistance of the skin (arousal causes sweaty pals which lowers the resistance, which is detected by polygraph)
what are faster heartbeat, shivering, sweaty palms and adrenaline release all associated with?
sympathetic NS activity in arousal
what is the James-Lange hypothesis of emotions?
the somatic marker theory, that says that the stimulus->physiological arousal and motor response-> emotion. (and therefore bodily reactions cause the emotion)
what is the cannon-bard theory of emotion?
That stimulus-->brain activity in thalamus--> fear and physiological arousal separately (therefore that bodily reactions and the experience of emotion are independent)
what did Ekman (1972) studies suggest about the link between bodily reactions and experience of emotion?
That there is a bidirectional link, since simulating an emotion (ex happiness) changed physiological response and vice versa- ex pen in mouth made emotion happier/funnier because muscles forced into smile
whose theory was cognitive labelling theory?
what are the 2 factors of cognitive labelling theory?
1: physiological arousal is necessary but not sufficient for the experience of emotion
2:to experience emotion we also have to interpret this physiological arousal as an emotional response
what did exp 1: schachter and ladd wheeler(1962) experiment involving A/tranq./placebo then watching a comedy show?
when given A found it funniest, therefore arousal influences emotional response to a stimulus
what did exp.2: schachter and singer (1962) involving A+ correct info/ false info/ no info, combined with aroused stooge, show?
attribution of arousal affects emotional response to a stimulus, because when given correct info was fine but if not then misattributed arousal and used stooges behaviour to make sense of own state of arousal.
What is the love on a bridge experiment an example of?
misattribution of arousal as attraction rather than fear.
why is info gathering about subjective well being not accurate?
because it relies on retrospective or "in general" answers, which relies on memory (which is reconstructed and can make stuff up/forget)
who said there are 2 distinct pathways for emotional responses?
le doux 2000
what is the "high road" emotional response?
sensory cortex to thalamus to neocortex to amygdala
what is the "low road" emotional response?
sensory cortex to thalamus to amygdala (bypasses neocortex)
how is the limbic system involved in emotional response?
amygdala is key in fear and negative emotions
what is the pathway for identification of a threat?
eyes to LGN to V1 to temporal cortex
what is the pathway taken for fear?
eyes to LGN to amygdala
what are the 3 nuclei in the amygdala?
lateral, basomedial, central
what is the lateral nuclei of the amygdala responsible for?
fear response, as shown as a lack of fear following lesions to the lateral nuclei
what is the central nuclei of the amygdala responsible for?
influencing behavioural, autonomic and endocrine systems
which pathway to prepared stimuli more readily access?
the "low road"
what are the 4 areas of the prefrontal cortex involved in emotional response?
dorsolateral, anterior cingulate, orbitofrontal, ventromedial
what is the role of the dorsolateral part of the prefrontal cortex?
what is the role of the anterior cingulate part of the prefrontal cortex?
attention, arbritration, self
what is the role of the orbitofrontal part of the prefrontal cortex?
control of urges