Flashcards in Emotion Deck (60):
What is Kluver-Bucy syndrome?
it's what happens with a lack of amygdala - fearlessness, inappropriate sex behavior, overly reactive
what type of syndrome is a young gorilla affected by when it starts copulating with an alpha gorilla?
what is the "fear circuit"?
low road - sensory input comes to the thalamus and projects straight into the amygdala
high road - sensory input comes to the thalamus, into the cortex, then to the amygdala
>cortex serves as the brake
“Sticks and stones can break your bones, but words can never hurt you”. True or false?
In the Anterior cingulate cortex, pain is pain, doesn’t matter if it’s physical or emotional pain
Where in the brain do we see pain?
The anterior cingulate cortex
Pain = ACC
Do you need a cortex to respond fearfully to a stimuli?
No – all you need is the connection from the thalamus to the amygdala (no cortex needed)
What happens when you damage the prefrontal cortex later in life? What about early in life?
Later in life - You know right AND wrong (concept of morality) – understanding the concept of morality but it doesn’t matter
Earlier in life – those individuals don’t understand right and wrong of morality
What controls the ANS?
What feeds into the hypothalamus – (indirectly affects ANS) amygdala, neocortex, hippocampus
Which hemisphere is most active when we are experiencing negative emotions?
The right hemisphere (right pre-frontal cortex) is most active when experiencing negative emotions.
Left pre-frontal cortex is active when happy and joyful
what does dichotic listening indicate about lateralization?
left ear -> right hemisphere and better at recognizing prosody and emotional tone and stimuli
right ear -> left hemisphere, and better at identifying semantic meaning
which ear would I want to talk into if I want someone to understand the meaning behind what I'm saying?
the right ear - goes to left side of brain
what ear would I talk to if I want someone to "feel" me and get my emotional prosidy?
the left ear - goes to the right side of brain
which side of the face is generally more expressive?
the left side of the face is more expressive - facial nerves are independent
which hemisphere of the brain is more quick to respond to negative stimuli?
what does this indicate?
the right hemisphere is faster to responding to negative (AND positive) stuff so it indicates that we're better at responding to negative affects than positive affects.
what is the jist of the cannon-bard theory?
physical responses and subjective response occur simultaneously AND independently.
paralyzed ppl are an example of this - they are less intense.
whose theory suggests that the CNS can generate emotions without the help or feedback of the PNS?
-ppl with spinal cord injuries
jist of schacter-singer theory
physical arousal and cognitive is simultaneously occuring and physiological arousal contributes only to the emotion's intensity
if the identity of emotion is based on the cognitive assement of the situation, whose theory would back this up?
which of the following activate change in the sympathetic NS?
all of them
what does it mean when we say emotion is dual sequential?
that it utilizes both physical and cognitive
why do we have emotion?
bridge between perception and action - simple task, we're better at performance vs. complex tasks, we're worse.
true or false - calm is a state of emotion
false calm is not an emotion
if i can wink and raise one eyebrow, what nerve am i using?
#7, facial nerve. facial nuclei are independent of each other.
the upper 1/3 are controlled ______
lower 2/3 is controlled _______
upper is bilateral
lower is contralateral
what are the 2 nerves incolved in the different pathways to control facial features?
motor - voluntary expression (somatic)
subcortical system (goes through basal ganglia, cortex, back to muscles...)
damage to motor cortex (descending to muscles) will cause what type of facial paresis?
volitional (ventral... hint)
damage to the subcortical systems will cause what type of paresis?
emotional facial paresis...
what's the difference between volitional and emotional facial paresis?
volitional facial paresis cannot VOLuntarily smile on command...
emotional facial paresis cannot express spontaneous (key and peele... he couldn't spontaneously laugh because he had emotional facial paresis).
what is paul ekmans 6 primary emotions?
what are the 2 componenets of emotion?
1. physical arousal
2. conscious subjective experience
jist of james-lange theory
we feel palms sweating moms spaghetti and tasting the bitterness of adrenaline and we're like... oh we're afraid.
we're all eminem up in this bitch.
which evidence backs up james lange theory?
which evidence doesn't support james-lange?
facial feedback hypothesis... if we smile, we believe it.
non-support - hard to distinguish in the sympathetic ns.
women who got botox were super happy, t or f?
they were neither - pretty chill... less anxiety, and less joy.
definition of mirror neurons?
neurons that rspond to both when we engage in an act AND while observing the same act in others... by mimiking other's expressions, we're closer to how they feel.
why would autistic children lack empathy?
they don't have the same eye pattern, so it's more difficult for them to understand the emotion.
the birth of the somatic marker supports which theory?
what is somatic marker theory?
somatic supports james-lange - while our physiological patterns (sympathetic NS) are similar, brain activity is different for each emotion.
so it's saying that maybe physiological feelings CAN affect brain patter which signals to us that we're happy, sad; etc.
What is the VMPC?
ventromedial prefrontal cortex forms associations between these patterns of activation and environmental stimuli.
associated with the somatic marker for emotional experience - that we can see the same patterns of activation as we encounter the same...
the limbic system has what structures?
amygdala, cingulate gyrus, mammillary bodies, hippocampus, fornix, hypothalamus
what does the hypothalamus have primary control over?
the autonomic nervous system
septal stimulation produces what?
pleasure accompanied by sex fantasies and arousal
what does the amygdala play a role in
fear and joy - signals us to pay attention to a stimuli that's relevant to us...
memory formation for valience...
where in the brain is disgust located?
insular cortex and basal ganglia
what does the anterior cingulate cortex combine?
into conscious experience
where does anxiety-reducing drugs act on?
receptors of the amygdala
where does the amydala receive information from?
neocortex (sensory cortex),
cingulate cortex, hippocampus
where does the amygdala send information to?
frontal and temporal lobe
what deficit does autistic individuals show?
amygdala - they have a hard time drawing pics of fear and lack of scanning in the eye region of faces.
describe the fear circuit... which structures are involved?
thalamus and amygdala.
low-road - amygdala has inhibitory effect on frontal lobe, so the high road is essentially inhibited.
high-road - frontal lobe can also inhibit the low road.
(cast iron - "if I drop this hot ass pan on the floor, I will fuck up my carpet and the pan; etc"
what's the point of the low and high road of the fear circuit?
allows us to rapidly process threatening stimuli
what type of receptors does the amygdala have large concentration for?
benzodiazephine... which is why it can inhibit activity in the fear circuit.
is the cortex necessary for fear conditioning?
nope. just amygdala is necessary.
what is the connective pathway between amygdala and other limbic areas (hypothalamus and hippocampus)?
what's associated with general pain? physical and emotional?
the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)
what's happening to someone who is constantly left-out or just got dumped?
their ACC is fucking on fire
how does taking aspirin help solve emotional pain?
because analgesics decrease the activity of the ACC
what area of the brain is possibly involved in associating patterns of brain activity with environmental stimuli settings?
what does frontal lobotomies cause?
reduced fear and anxiety, less agression
reduced valience attaching
anesthesia of which hemisphere result in feelings of depression?
the left hemisphere
which hemisphere of the brain is quicker at processing both positive and negative emotion?
right hemisphere - although it's mostly focused on negative shit and that shits picked up even faster.