Flashcards in Emotional, Cognitive And Psychosocial Devlopment Across The Lifespan Deck (34):
Psychologist Carroll Izard studied babies’ faces and identi ed many signs of emotions. The most common expression he found was:
The most common expression he found was interest, followed by joy, anger and sadness. Over a two-year period, infants in the study became more active in having emotional relations with their parents
Why are emotions important?
As they assist people to develop and maintain relationships. Emotions can be positive: joy, love and enthusiasm. They can also be negative: anger, sadness and anxiety. The study of emotional development includes ascertaining the point in time at which people learn emotions, and how they deal with their emotions.
What is privation?
If attachment never occurs – that is, if a child never forms a close relationship with anyone.
Privation can cause permanent emotional damage.
Why is it important that children make strong, close and emotional bonds?
- helps people form relationships later in life with friends or lovers
What happens to an infants emotional development as they grow?
An attachment formed between child and caregiver is the first close emotional relationship a child has. Infants become attached to people who fulfill their needs for physical care and attention.
Infant: three months demonstrate attachment-like behaviours, such as smiling at familiar faces rather than strange ones
Infant: At six to eight months of age, infants begin to cry and hang on to their parents if they try to leave, and become more fearful when they see strangers. If infants become distressed at this age, they usually cannot be comforted by strangers; instead they seek comfort from the caregiver to whom they are attached
What was Harry Harlow's theory of attachment?
He focused on attachment in rhesus monkeys. Initially he separated infant monkeys from their mothers at birth. During the process, Harlow found that when he placed the monkeys in individual cages that contained a blanket, the monkeys became attached to the blanket and got upset if it was taken away. These behaviours indicated to Harlow that attachment may be formed by means other than nourishment.
Harlow demonstrated that feeding and nourishment do not create attachment: contact comfort is more important.
What doe Mary Ainsworth study?
She studied the differences in the quality of attachment. Rather than using naturalistic observation techniques, Ainsworth created a laboratory testing technique known as the Strange Situation. The Strange Situation allowed Ainsworth to measure infant attachment by having infants experience a sequence of events, including separations and reunions with their mothers, and introductions to an adult stranger.
What is the strange situation?
A method used by Ainsworth to study the differences in quality of attachment between an infant and a caregiver
Type A: What is insecure avoidant attachment?
These infants rarely get upset when a stranger enters the room. They do not cling to their caregiver at any stage. They show no distress when their caregiver leaves the room and can ignore or avoid them when they return. These infants do become distressed when left alone; however, they can be comforted by either their caregiver or the stranger. Both adults are treated the same way by the infants.
Type B: What is secure attachment?
These infants will play happily when their caregiver is present, trusting that their caregiver will be there if they need them. These infants are very attached to their caregiver and will become distressed when their caregiver leaves. A stranger can comfort the infant, but is treated differently to the caregiver. When the caregiver returns, these infants will seek immediate contact and are delighted when they are reunited. In this instance, infants are distressed by the absence of the caregiver, not by being alone.
Type C: What is insecure resistant attachment?
These infants are more clingy, cry more and do not explore or play as much as Type A or B. They become extremely distressed when their caregiver leaves and resist any comfort from the stranger. These infants seek contact with the caregiver when reunited, but will not display joy during this time. Instead they will continue to be distressed, cry and will not play. These infants appear to be anxious and negative.
What was Piaget's theory of cognitive development?
Piaget believed that cognitive development depends upon the interaction of the brain’s biological maturation with personal experiences. He proposed that all children go through four different cognitive stages sequentially, without missing any. He believed that these stages were the same for every child, regardless of their culture.
What is schemata?
It's mental structures/frameworks that organise past experiences and provide an understanding of future experiences. As children grow, schemata become more complex in order to incorporate experiences or information that has been gathered
What is assimilation?
The process where new experiences are combined with existing schemata. For instance, when an infant experiences a new toy for the first time, they may put it in their mouth and suck on it. This behaviour demonstrates that the infant is trying to fit information about this new toy into their existing schema of sucking.
Accommodation occurs if:
If an infant or child discovers that new information does not fit into their schemata
What is accommodation?
Accommodation is when new experiences cause schemata to change or modify. For instance, if an infant discovers that the object they are trying to suck is too big or tastes awful, or the child discovers that the truck is bigger than a car, then these thoughts cause schemata to change and become more comple
What was it that Piaget summarised?
Piaget proposed four stages that summarise the different schemata a child has at particular times of their life and how the schemata change with experiences as they grow.
- concrete operational
- formal operational
Birth-2: What is sensorimotor?
Infants learn about their world through their senses (hearing, seeing) and by actions (motor) such as grasping or pulling.
- Object permanence: Infants come to understand that an object still exists when it is no longer seen.
2-7: What is pre-operational?
Children continue to develop, and they use symbols, images and language to represent their world.
Children develop symbols to represent objects or events. This thinking allows the child to participate in pretend or make-believe play.
Children will believe that inanimate objects are alive for example, talking about toy cars as people.
Children are unable to view the world from someone else’s perspective.
Children can only focus on one aspect of a task at a time: for example, if a child is asked to divide blocks according to size and colour, it is likely they will divide the blocks either on size or colour, but not both.
Children will have difficulty arranging objects according to one dimension for example, arranging sticks from shortest to longest.
Children lack conservation; they cannot understand that objects stay the same despite changes in appearance
Children are unable to realise that an action can be done and then undone
What the COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENTS AND LIMITATIONS To the pre operational stage?
> Symbolic thinking
7-12: What is the concrete operational stage?
Children can perform basic mental problems that involve physical objects.
COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENTS AND LIMITATIONS to the concrete operational stage?
Children begin to understand reversibility and conservation, and display less centration and egocentrism. Children may struggle to solve problems that require abstract thinking.
12+: What is formal operational?
Children are able to think logically and methodically about physical and abstract problems.
COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENTS AND LIMITATIONS to the formal operational stage?
Children begin to think more flexibly. They can do hypothetical problems, and can form and test hypotheses.
What criticism has Piaget received regarding his theory?
> Children can gain cognitive skills at an earlier age than Piaget believed.
> Cognitive development can occur inconsistently. A child may perform most tasks at a pre-operational level, but solve some tasks at a concrete operational level.
> Piaget often conducted cognitive tests and observations on his own children, so the methodology of his experiments has been questioned.
What is Erikson's theory?
He stated that human beings moved through psychosocial stages. He believed that developmental change occurs throughout the lifespan and is influenced by cultural and social experiences; and that all these experiences – whether in the early or later stages of life – are crucial in personality development. Erikson’s psychosocial theory recognised eight stages of development.