What percentage of Russia's population did the national minorities make up?
The 'Great Russians' in the minority!
In the 19th century, what was the state's main tool to control + repress the minorities?
How was this done?
Controlled by the Orthodox Church
Message of faith in God and unquestioning submission to God’s will was a major support of Tsarist regime.
Was claimed that only members of the Orthodox faith could really be true and reliable subjects of the Tsar.
What was the conservative Tsarist attitude towards the minorities? What reinforced/underpinned it?
Reinforced by the conviction that Russian social organisation, religion, government, culture, and philosophy were superior due to isolation from mainstreams of western European development.
Thus the duty of all Russians to protect these blessings against all external threats.
What were those who wished to preserve and consolidate the essentials of Slav culture throughout the Empire known as?
Which 3 wars did Russia lose territory/influence?
Crimea (control of the Black Sea).
The First World War (Poland, Finland, the Baltic States, and part of Ukraine)
The Civil War/Russo-Polish War (further parts of Ukraine)
Why did the loss of territory/influence in wars make Russia 'revisionist'?
Give an example
Wanted to regain the crucial territory OR gain influence elsewhere
E.g. focussing on Asian expansion into Manchuria after failing to make headway on the ‘Eastern Question’ in the Balkans
What were the 3 main motives for expansion of the Empire?
Why did rulers at certain points not want to expand the Empire?
If wars had been disastrous, not in position to expand borders
If the situation at home was economically stable there was no need to expand borders
Had strong ideological beliefs against expansion, only maintenance the Empire (Prov Gov)
If satisfied with strategic position they had would not push further + damage it
What is Russification?
The process of drawing non-Russian regions more securely into the empire.
Procedure was to integrate groups into the administration of the Empire followed by an inculcation process - the transmission of Russian language, religion, and culture.
Minority traditions would become ‘subsidiary, colourful ethnic remnants’ rather than forces for change
How was 'social russification' (i.e. spreading Russian language + culture) linked to economic inegration?
Common language and administration meant general improvements in telecommunications and transport.
Describe the origins of russification
Begun by Milyutin’s plan after the Polish Revolt to give more liberal freedoms whilst placing government administration in Russian hands
However influential newspaper editor of the Moscow Bulletin Mikhail Katkov believed providing too many liberal freedoms would lead to separatism and disintegration. Believed regions should be brought under control through forceful transmission of Russian values.
Why + how did the Communisits continue russfication?
Aimed to form federal state centrally guided from Moscow
Each minority had certain amount of autonomy but still subservient to Moscow
Thus focus was on constitutional changes.
They aimed to spread Communist values instead of Russian ones
What led to changes in Russian foreign policy towards Europe?
What were the Russians motives for expansion?
War and Revolution
When led to loss of territory would be a clamour to regain the most economically or socially important territory. However if territory was not considered that important would not necessarily fight for it.
When war gave opportunity to expand territory and gain a strategic advantage, the Russians would clearly take it.
What were the key events that influenced Russian foreign policy in central + eastern Europe?
The 1905 Revolution
The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
The Civil War/Polish-Russian War
What methods of expansion/control were used in Central + Eastern Europe?
- Some concession in the October Manifesto, with nationalities represented in the Duma and equal rights theoretically extended to all citizens
- Prov Gov allowed Rada + Sejm and Special Transcaucasion Committee after WW1
- During 1905 Rev ¼ million troops were needed to keep order in Poland when fighting broke out on the streets, Baltic States - martial law, virtual civil war in Georgia declared itself an independent state
What were the successes of Russian foreign policy towards Central + Eastern Europe?
Regained land lost during WW1 + Civil War - Baltic States, Poland, Caucasus
Gained control over many states that it had never even considered previously such as East Germany, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria and Romania
What were the failures of Russian foreign policy towards Central + Eastern Europe?
1905 Rev - ¼mil troops needed to restore order just in Poland, martial law in Baltics, Georgia tries to declare indepence
WW1 - Riga fell. PG allow Rada + Sejm, Transcaucasus Special Committee
Brest-Litovsk - Ukraine seperate peace with Germany + under its 'protection'. Baltics, Poland, Ukraine, Georgia and Finland all gained independence under German protection. Treaty of Versailles removed German 'protection' but all retain independance (except Ukraine- divided between Poland + Russia following war)
Cold War - 1956 Polish + Hungarian uprisings
What were the motives for Russian expansion into the Far East?
Chance! Railways meant had access + tech needed
War - failures in Europe (after Crimea) meant looked East (though easier)
Ideology - communism into China
What were the key events in Russian foreign policy towards the Far East?
Taking of the Amur Basin in the 1860s by governor-general of Eastern Siberia Nikolai Muraviev
Russo-Japanese war 1904-5
Russians liberate Manchuria 1945 (give back to China)
What methods of control/expansion were used by Russian leaders in the Far East?
Independant initiative (+ Chance!): Muraviev took Amur Basin with personal army + forced signing of peace treaty
War: Russo-Japanese War (although failed)
International Influence (+ Chance!): Some northern Chinese provinces came under Communist control (e.g. Xinjiang in 1921). In 1945 Mongolia was occupied by Soviet forces to liberate it from Japan + became an independent ‘People’s Republic’ but was essentially a Far Eastern Satellite State. Mao respected Stalin so had good relations.
What were the successes of Russian foreign policy in the Far East?
1921 Xinjiang Province comes under Russian control by chance
1945 Soviets liberate Manchuria + gave back to China although kept Port Arthur until 1953
1945 Liberate Mongolia + keep as 'independent ‘People’s Republic’' (aka satellite state)
Despite Stalin's lack of support for CCP during Chinese Civil war after WW2, Mao paid homage to Stalin’s Communist hegemony and they had good relations
What were the failures in Russian foreign policy towards the Far East?
1904/5 Russo-Japanese war! Lead to 1905 Revolution
Stalin probably encouraged North Korea to South causing Korean War. Caused heightened Cold War tensions + probably encouraged Khrushchev to push for ‘peaceful coexistence’.
Lenin + Stalin supported anti-communist + conservative KMT in the 1920s and 1930s as seen as the only thing able to bring stability following the collapse of the old Empire
Khrushchev - Sino-Soviet Split due to the ‘Secret Speech’ + perceived weakness in dealing with the US ‘Imperalists’. Border issues in Xianjian as Mao aimed to be the leader of the Communist world.
What were the motives for Russian expansion into Central Asia?
Living + Working Space: To quell land demands of European Russians after Emacipation
Natural Resources: Cotton cultivation + raw materials for factories (e.g. coal)
Strateigic Importance: Would allow placement of forces next to other empires (e.g. Wakhan corridor) + created prospect of further expansion
What were the key events in Russian foreign policy towards Central Asia?
1891 Steppe Statute granted 40 acres of land to peasant settlers to establish farms
1910 Stolypin's ‘virgin lands’ migration - native land appropriated to Europeans causing resentment.
Under Nicholas II ‘All-Russian Muslim League' gained Duma representation (although banned after 1907 change to the franchise)
1936 Stalin Consitution gave Soviet representation + allowed flags and national symbols
However remote regions still dumping ground for punishment - Crimean Tartars deported 1945 for 'Nazi collaboration'
Khrushchev's VLS unpopular with natives who felt western immigrants taking their land
What were the successes of Russian foreign policy in Central Asia?
Tsars showed some respect to the mainly Islamic faith in the region. Nicholas II ‘All-Russian Muslim League' in Duma (although banned after 1907 change to the franchise).
Wars + revolutions didn't lead to loss of central Asian territory, thus the Communists inherited it without any major issue.
1936 'Stalin Constitution' gave Soviet representation + flags and national symbols accepted. Suggested more sensitivity to wants and needs of natives
1957 Khrushchev allowed many of those deported in the 1940s to return to homelands (excepting some groups like Volga Germans).
What were the failures of Russian foreign policy in Central Asia?
Steppe Statute of 1891 granted 40 acres of land to peasants to establish a farm + Stolypin's ‘virgin lands’ migration in 1910 resulted in native land being appropriated to Europeans causing resentment
Tried to rally support in WW1 but natives deemed not fit for combat + given other jobs. Conscription began during Ramadan + military prowess looked down upon led to a ‘conscription revolt’.
Harsh areas of the region used as dumping grounds for those who needed punishing. Gulags + Crimean Tartars deported to south Kazakhstan 1945
Khrushchev’s VLS unpopular with the natives who felt swamped with western immigrants taking their land
What methods of expansion/control were used in Central Asia?
No point Russifying region as communication and transport difficult and the complex and nomadic societies would not take to it effectively
Instead encouraged Europeans to migrate - 1891 Steppe Statute, Stoypin's VLs, Khrushchev's VLS
Aimed to gain loyalty through recognition of native culture + differences etc. - Nicholas II an ‘All-Russian Muslim League' + 1936 Stalin Constitution
What was the background to Russo-Polish relations leading up to the reign of Alexander II?
By 1855 Poland was firmly under Russian control but had long tradition of trying to break away from Tsarist rule.
In Napoleonic era independant as Polish state + monarchy established. Collapsed with his defeat in 1815
1830 attempted coup + brief independace although failed as not all Poles wished to break away
After decades of repression hopeful that Alex II's reformist attitude might improve position BUT A II wary + maintained prev. measures to prevent insurgency. E.g. artillery squads not given shells in case got into wrong hands!
What were the causes of the 1863 Polish Revolt?
Emancipation gave renewed hope - led to rise in Polish nationalism demanding political autonomy, education reforms (e.g. reopening of Warsaw Uni), + emancipation of Polish serfs
Again, division. Some wanted total indpendace + regaining of territory lost to Russia during Napoleonic Wars
Wielopolski PM in 1862 + accepted Russian rule. Attempted to introduce liberal reforms e.g. replacing feudal ties with land rents + legal changes to give Jews + Christians equality (autonomy on social issues)
Nationalists believed he was 'Tsarist lapdog' - partially true as only pushed for reform when had Russian approval.
Led to mass demonsatations 1861-2 + assassination attempts (+ on Grand Duke Konstantin)
Retaliated by forcing conscription of all young male Poles into Russian army. Howveer they refused to cooperate + formed bands of renegade rebels
What were the key events of the 1863 Polish Revolt?
Lasted Jan 1863-Spring 1864
No military confrontations as rebels threatened gov stablilty with guerrilla tactics
May have had some support from 'Land + Liberty' + sympathetic Russian officers.
Rebel leader Dabrowski was officer in Russian army
Nationalist movements didn't get enough peasant support although significant destruction did occur in countryside.
By Mid-1864 Russian army had regained control + leaders arreasted + executed (except for Dabrowski who was exiled to Siberia but later escaped to France)