Flashcards in Empiricism Deck (22):
What are the Two Methods of Belief?
Dogmatism and Empiricism.
What is Dogmatism?
The tendency of people to cling to their assumptions. Being selected for 'random' frisking for your skin colour.
What is Empiricism?
When an individual attempts to acquire knowledge by observing objects or events.
What to Psychologists Do?
ask how millions of neurons constitute the brain and give rise to thoughts, feelings, and actions.
Difficulty in Studying People:
• Variable. No two people are the same.
• Reactivity. Front stage and back stage. When we are in public, we act one way. We accommodate our actions to what is expected of us. Back stage is when there is no expectations. If you know you're being studied, you do what you think the researcher wants you to do.
Describe the Two Steps of Measurement.
• First Step: Define the property (ex. happiness) you wish to measure. Correlate two things so it is measurable (muscle contractions- a smile- indicates happiness),
• Second Step: Identify the device (ex. electromyograph EMG) to detect the concrete conditions/events (happiness).
What is an Operational Definition?
It describes the property's concrete condition in measurable terms (ex. muscle contractions).
What is Validity?
The characteristic of an observation that allows one to draw accurate inferences from it.
What are the Two Types of Validity?
Construct Validity and Predictive Validity.
What is Construct Validity?
The tendency of an operational definition and a property to have a clear conceptual relation. Invalid if you correlate two completely different things ie. hand size to happiness.
What is Predictive Validity?
The tendency for an operational definition to be related to other operational definitions.
Measurement is Inadequate If:
• Operational definition is inadequate.
• Measure inadequate.
A Measure Must Be:
o The tendency for a measure to produce the same results whenever it is used to measure the same thing. Consistent measurements.
o The tendency for a measure to produce different results when it is used to measure different things. Ability to detect differences.
Examine the exceptional individuals or outliers to gain in-depth insight into human psychology.
Examining ordinary people to understand the average population.
The complete collection of objects or events that might be measured.
The partial collection of objects or events measured.
Law of Large Numbers
AS the sampel size increases, the attributes of the sample more closely reflect the attributes of the population from which the sample was drawn.
The 'most frequent' measurement in a frequency distribution.
The average of the measurement frequency.
The 'middle' measurement in a frequency distribution.