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Flashcards in Endo Deck (46):
1

Endo cell vs Endo organ

Endo cells are found on organs that have a function other than endocrine

2

Anterior pituitary aka

a. adenohypophysis
b. neurohypophysis

a. adenohypophysis

3

Posterior pituitary aka

a. adenohypophysis
b. neurohypophysis

b. neurohypophysis

4

ADH is secreted by

a. adenohypophysis
b. neurohypophysis

b. neurohypophysis

5

oxytocin

a. adenohypophysis
b. neurohypophysis

b. neurohypophysis

6

ACTH is made in which cells

a. corticotrope
b. thyrotrope
c. gonadotrope
d. somatotrope
e. lactotrope

a. corticotrope

7

Growth hormone is made in which cells

a. corticotrope
b. thyrotrope
c. gonadotrope
d. somatotrope
e. lactotrope

d. somatotrope

8

Parts of adrenal gland superficial to deep and major classes of hormones

1. cortex
a. zona glomerulosa
b. zona fasciculata
c. zona reticularis
(steroids)

2. medulla
(catecholamines)

9

aldosterone is produced in

a. zona glomerulosa
b. zona fasciculata
c. zona reticularis
d. medulla

a. zona glomerulosa

10

cortisol is produced in

a. zona glomerulosa
b. zona fasciculata
c. zona reticularis
d. medulla

b. zona fasciculata

11

DHEAS is produced in

a. zona glomerulosa
b. zona fasciculata
c. zona reticularis
d. medulla

c. zona reticularis

12

epinephrine and norepinephrine is produced in

a. zona glomerulosa
b. zona fasciculata
c. zona reticularis
d. medulla

d. medulla

13

Thyroid gland produces

T3
T4
Calcitonin

14

Calcitonin is released when plasma Ca is ___ and how?

high
low

high; Ca redeposited into bone

15

Pancreas cell types and what they secrete. Which is most abundant?

beta - insulin (60%)
alpha - glucagon
delta - somatostatin

16

Insulin is produced from which cells

alpha
beta
delta

beta

17

Glucagon
is produced from which cells

alpha
beta
delta

alpha

18

Somatostatin is produced from which cells

alpha
beta
delta

delta

19

Will removal of hypothalamus lead to absence of ADH and oxytocin?

Yes; hypothalamus is the site of synthesis

20

Increase in plasma ADH levels will be observed with?

A. Increased Plasma osmolality
B. Decreased Blood volume
C. Increased plasma norepinephrine
D. Decreased plasma histamine

A. Increased Plasma osmolality

21

1st and 2nd most important stimulaton of ADH

- incrased plasma osmolality

- decreased blood volume

22

Angiotensin II does this to ADH

stimulates
inhibits

stimulates

23

Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) does this to ADH

stimulates
inhibits

inhibits

24

What causes the negative feedback on the HPA axis?

hormone
physiological effect

hormone

25

One of these stimulates growth hormone secretion

A. Obesity
B. Starvation
C. Somatomedin
D. Insulin

B. Starvation

26

Removal of the anterior pituitary gland leads to a decrease in all of these hormones EXCEPT (and why)

A. ACTH
B. TSH
C. Growth hormone
D. Prolactin

D. Prolactin; hypothalamus is inhibitory to prolactin

27

Inhibitory to prolactin

- dopamine
- bromocriptine
- somatostatin
- GH
- TSH

28

TRH action on prolactin

stimulatory
inhibitory

stimulatory

29

Glucagon action on prolactin

stimulatory
inhibitory

stimulatory

30

What are the target cells of ACTH? They produce what?

Z. fasciculata - cortisol

Z. reticularis - androgens

31

Which has a negative feedback on hypothalamus/pituitary?

cortisol
androgens

Cortisol

32

What increases aldosterone secretion?

a. angiotensin II
b. hyperkalemia
c. hypernatremia

hyperkalemia
angiotensin II

33

What decreases aldoserone secretion?

a. angiotensin II
b. hyperkalemia
c. hypernatremia

c. hypernatremia

34

What inhibits insulin secretion?

- epinephrine
- norepinephrine
- somatostatin

35

What inhibits glucagon?

insulin

36

What stimulates glucagon?

- hypoglycemia
- catecholamines
- protein

37

What stimulates parathyriod synthesis?

HYPERcalcemia

38

What three tissues does GH act on?

- adipose tissue
- liver
- muscle

39

What is the is effect on excess of GH that leads to diabetes?

- decrease of utilization of glucose which causes excess secretion of insulin

40

Cushing's disease is an excess of what hormone?

cortisol

41

Symptoms of cushing"s disease

- weight gain
- hyperglycemia
- osteroporosis
- susceptibility to infection
- thin skin
- diarrhea (stimulates GIT)

42

Major anabolic hormone; produced in fed / fasting state

insulin; fed

43

Glucagon is produced in which state?

fed
fasting

fasting

44

insulin stimulates

- glycolysis

- glycogenesis
- protein synthesis
- lipogenesis

45

parathyroid hormone acts on

- kidney
- bone resorption

46

hyperparathyriodism excess

- hypercalcemia
- hypophosphatemia
- bone resorption