Endo 8 - Glucose Flashcards Preview

HD3 Endocrine > Endo 8 - Glucose > Flashcards

Flashcards in Endo 8 - Glucose Deck (48):
1

what biomarker is used to estimate insulin levels

c-peptide

2

major cell of pancreas (60%)

beta cell

3

25% of pancrease

alpha cell (glucagon)

4

5-10% of pancreas

delta cell (somatostatin)

5

increase G in cell increases what molecule

ATP

6

high ATP closes what channel

K channel

7

how does low ATP cause insulin release

K channel open => Ca in (depolar) => exocytosis of insulin

8

4 things insulin does

downstream cell growth differen
glucose txp
glucose metab
gene expression

9

insulin sensitive G txp

GLUT-4

10

ubiquitous G txp

GLUT-1

11

beta cell/liver/kidney/intestine G txp

GLUT-2

12

effect of insulin on glycogen

increases glycogen synthesis

13

effect of insulin on HSL

suppress HSL to allow fat storage

14

effect of epi on lipolysis

increase lipolysis

15

symptoms of DM

polyuria/dipsia
hyperphagia
weight loss

16

dx db

A1C > 6.5
2 separate FPG > 126
2h PG in OGTT > 200
random PG > 200

17

what does A1c reflect

glucose status over last 120 days

18

immune mediators in T1DM

T cells

19

HLA type increased risk for T1DM

HLA DR3/4

20

what is unopposed in T1DM

glucagon

21

defects in what 2 things needed for T2DM

insulin secretion
insulin action

22

what happens to b cells over time in T2DM

beta cell mass lost

23

what type of insulin secretion is lost in T2DM

glucose induced insulin secretion

24

cytokines in T1DM

nf-kb and STAT1

25

common pathway in pathophys of T1 and T2

ER stress, JNK, AMPK, ROS, mitochondrial failure

26

end result of T1 and T2DM

beta cell mass lost

27

% b cells in nondiabetic obesity

90%

28

normal % b cell

70%

29

islet # in T2DM

decreases

30

what happens to architecture of islet in T2DM

becomes disorganized

31

what happens to the bcells/islet ratio

decreases

32

T/F you can see amyloid plaques in T2DM

TRUE

33

3 types of insulin resistance

pre-receptor, receptor, post-receptor

34

2 types of pre-receptor defects

abnormal insulin
insulin Ab

35

how common are pre-receptor defects

uncommon

36

3 types of receptor defects

decreased #
receptor Ab
nonfunctional receptor

37

ex of post-reecptor defect

transduction problem

38

2 biochem ways insulin signalling is affected

Serine/Threo phosphorylation
tyrosine dephosphorylation

39

how does obesity contribute to insulin resistance

increased FA => PKC => blocks insulin signal transduction

40

T/F inflammation can lead to insulin resistance

TRUE

41

what does overeating do

causes inflammation

42

twin concordance for T1DM

50%

43

twin concordance for T2DM

100%

44

how are obesity and inflammation linked to T2DM

increased oxidative stress

45

what responds to decreased [G]

glucagon
epi
GH
cortisol

46

causes of high insulin hypoglycemia

insulin
drugs - sulfonylureas

47

causes of low insulin hypoglycemia

liver failure
malnutrition
alcohol
GH/cortisol deficiency

48

hypogly in t1DM means what 3 possibilities

loss of glucagon
decrease of compensatory G threshold
reduction in magnitude of compensation