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Flashcards in Endocrine Deck (40):
1

What are the main differences between Endocrine and the nervous system??

Endocrine: Slow response, target distant from cells, Long duration, Blood born, hormones
Nervous System: Fast response, cell to cell, short duration, electrical chemical, neurotransmitters

2

What is the difference between Exocrine and Endocrine?

Exocrine secretes fluid, through ducts
Endocrine secretes hormones through blood stream

3

What is the two areas that are both exocrine and endocrine?

Testis & Pancreas

4

List the 9 Endocrine glands.

Hypothalamus
Pineal Gland
Pituitary Gland
Parathyroid Gland
Thyroid Gland
Thymus
Adrenal Gland
Pancreas
Ovary/Testis

5

What area regulates the Endocrine system?

The Hypothalamus

6

How does the Hypothalamus regulates the endocrine and nervous systems?

Direct neural control
ADH and Oxytocin
Regulatory Hormone production

7

What is the hypothalamus responsible for regulating?

Temperature regulation, thirst, hunger, sleep, mood, sex drive, and the release of other hormones within the body.

8

Where is the pituitary gland found?

Base of the Hypothalamus

9

There are two parts to the Pituitary Gland, what are there names and function?

Adenohypophysis - Anterior secretes 7 hormones into the blood stream - endocrine
Neurophypophysis - Posterior - secretes 2 hormones - mainly neural.

10

What is the name of the vein that links the hypothalimus to the anterior pituitary gland?

Portal Vein

11

How do the hormones get released form the posterior pituitary gland?

From the neurons that travel from the hypothalimus

12

What is the name of the two groups of cells found in the Anterior pituitory gland and the 2 sub groups of one of these groups?

Chromophobe and Chromophill: Acidophills and Basophils

13

What hormones do the Basophils release?

FSH, LH, ACTH, TSH (FLAT)

14

What hormones do the Acidophils release?

Prolactin and GH (PIG) I = Ignore

15

What hormones does the Neurohypopsis release?

Oxytocin and Vasopressin (retention of water and regulates blood pressure)

16

What is the name of the area connecting the two lobes of the Thyroid gland?

Isthmus

17

What are the two cells found in the Thyroid and what are there functions?

Thyroid Follicular Cell = Releases Thyroid Hormone T3 & T4 - speeds up metabolic rate
C - Cells = Releases Calcitonin which reduces calcium levels

18

Where is the parathyroid gland located?

At the back of the Thyroid

19

What are the names of the two types of cells found in the Parathyroid gland?

Cheif Cells and Oxyphil Cells

20

What is the hormone released by the Parathyroid and what does it do?

Parathyroid Hormone which increases calcium levels.

21

What can stop the production of Thyroid Hormone?

Lack of Iodine which causes Goiter (swollen Thyroid)

22

Where is the adrenal glands located?

On top of the kidneys

23

What is the names of the 2 parts of the Adrenal Gland?

Cortex (outside) & Medulla (Inside)

24

What is the function of the cortex and Medulla?

The Cortex secretes 3 hormones - Aldosterone, Cortisol and Sex hormone
The Medulla Secretes Adrenaline & Noradrenaline

25

The Adrenal Cortex is made of 3 layers, what are they aand what are there functions?

Zona Glomerulosa - Regulates Electrocytes in ECF (Salt)
Zone Fasciculata - Regulates Glucose levels (Sweet)
Zona Reticularis - Regulates Sex Hormones (Sex)

26

What is the Adrenal Gland capsule made of?

Dense connective tissue and adipose tissue. There is a lot of Reticular fibre and Fibroblasts in the capsule

27

What hormone is released from the Zona Glomerulosa?

Secretes Aldosterone

28

What hormone is released from the Zona Fasciculata

Secretes Cortisol - increases blood glucose levels and a little Androgen ( there is a little crossover of hormone secretion between the Zona Fasciculata and the Zona Reticularis

29

What hormone does Zona Reticularis secrete?

Androgens (sex hormone) and a little Cortisol

30

What is the name of the syndrome created by a hyper functiong Zona Fasciculata?

Cushing Syndrome

31

What hormones does the Adrenal medulla secrete and store?

Adrenaline and Noradrenaline

32

What is the tissue in the Medulla?

Preganglionic fibers that come directly from the spinal cord.

33

What is the name of the cell that secretes adrenaline?

Chromafin cells

34

What is the main unique feature of the pancreas?

It is exocrine (secretes digestive enzymes) and is endocrine - secretes Insulin & glucogon

35

What is an example of an enzymes secreted from the pancrease?

Amalase

36

What is the separate names given to the endocrine and exocrine areas?

Endocrine = Islets of Langerhands - red/purple internal cells
Exocrine = Acini - yellow outside cells

37

What is the name given to the cells that release glucogon and insulin?

B Cells = Insulin = reduces blood sugar levels
A Cells = Secrets Glucagon = increases blood sugar levels

38

What is a Autocrine hormone?

Where a cells secretes a hormone or chemical messenger that binds to autocrine receptors on that same cell, leading to changes in the cell.

39

What is a Paracrine hormone?

A hormone that functions regionally and gets distributed to nearby cells changing there role or function. An example of this is the relationship between the Hypothalasum and the pituitory gland

40

What is a Endocrine hormone?

One which acts at a distance through the bloodstream.