Flashcards in Endocrine & ANS Deck (40):
What are the two kinds of local hormones?
Paracrines and autocrines
Which hormones do the cells of the zona glomerulosa (adrenal gland) synthesise?
Which cells are present in the anterior pituitary gland?
Acidophils, basophils, chromophobes
What is wobblers disease?
Hansen type II herniation of the invertebral discs- the annulus thickens and compresses the spinal cord
What do alpha cells secrete?
What do beta cells produce?
What do delta cells secrete?
What do F cells secrete?
Where are GLUT2 transporters present?
What is the function of somatostatin?
Paracrine inhibition of insulin and glucagon
Decreases release of growth hormone
Where are calcium pools found?
Where is the body's primary 'clock' located in the brain?
Suprachiasmic nuclei in the hypothalamus
What does the pineal gland secrete?
When is secretion of melatonin from the pineal gland increased?
How does melatonin secretion affect seasonal breeding?
Melatonin secretion varies with time of year, and is greatest when there is shorter periods of daylight.
When there is more daylight: low melatonin release
Short-day kiss neurons inhibited -> decrease in LH and FSH secretion, no cycles
Long-day kiss neurons stimulated -> increases in LH and FSH secretion, cyclicity
How does leptin affect appetite?
Which 6 hormones are secreted by the anterior pituitary gland?
What is the difference between paracrines and autocrines?
Autocrines are released by an autocrine cell which also possesses receptors for the hormone, ie autocrine cell=target cell
With autocrines, the target cell is the same cell that release
Paracrine cells release paracrines to nearby target cells
In the pancreas, exocrine cells are arranged in clusters called...
Which nervous system inhibits insulin?
How does insulin cause cells to take in glucose?
Binds to tyrosine kinase receptor, receptor phosphorylates insulin-receptor substrate.
Second messenger pathways alter protein syntheis and existing proteins.
Membrane transport is modified by the increase in GLUT4 transporters
What is glucose converted to when taken up by cells (due to insulin)?
Where do the following bind:
Lipid-soluble: bind to receptors in the cytoplasm or nucleus of the cell
Water-soluble: bind to receptors on the cell's surface
What 2 hormones does the posterior pituitary secrete?
ADH (inserts aquaporrins in cell membranes)
Oxytocin (milk ejection, released during labour, maternal bonding)
Where is the thyroid gland located?
2 lobes located either side of the trachea, just below larynx
Why is T4 converted to T3?
T3 is biologically more active than T4
But more T4 is produced (50:1)
What causes a goitre? (enlarged thyroid gland)
(Could be tumour)
Lack of iodine in diet/inhibited uptake of iron
Can't make thyroid hormones, continually high TSH stimulates growth of thyroid follicular cells, no negative feedback
Where is the adrenal gland?
Paired, lies beneath peritoneum, craniomedially to corresponding kidney
What are the 3 zones of the adrenal cortex and what do they secrete?
Outer=zona glomerulosa secretes mineralocorticoid hormones eg aldosterone (regulation of blood pressure/volume, Na and K conc)
Middle=zona fasciculata secretes glucocorticoid hormones (glucose metabolism eg cortisol)
Inner=zona reticularis secretes androgens
What 2 things increase Ca2+?
What decreases it?
Decreased by calcitonin
Where is calcitonin made?
Parafollicular/C cells of thyroid gland
What are adpokines?
Hormones secreted by adipose tissue eg leptin
Which cranial nerves are parasympathetic?
3, 7, 9, 10
In the sympathetic nervous system, what are the neurotransmitters at the pre-ganglionic synapse (between pre-and post-ganglionic neuron) and post-ganglionic synapse (between post-ganglionic neuron and effector)?
What are the receptor types?
1. Acetylcholine (nicotinic)
2. Noradrenaline/adrenaline (nicotinic)
In the parasympathetic nervous system, what are the neurotransmitters at the pre-ganglionic synapse (between pre-and post-ganglionic neuron) and post-ganglionic synapse (between post-ganglionic neuron and effector)?
What are the receptor types?
Acetylcholine at both
Nicotinic then muscarinic
What is the neurotransmitter in the somatic nervous system?
What is the receptor type?
What do chromaffin cells secrete?
Catecholamines eg adrenaline, noradrenaline
What is the fight or flight response?
Generalised response to stress or fear. Prepares the body for vigorous exercise
Where are the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems' origins in the CNS?
Sympathetic=Spinal cord T1-L2
Parasympathetic=Brainstem and sacral spinal cord