Endocrine Anatomy Flashcards Preview

USMLE Step 1: Endocrine > Endocrine Anatomy > Flashcards

Flashcards in Endocrine Anatomy Deck (28)
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1
Q

Name the layers of the adrenal gland from the outside in.

A

Capsule, Zona Glomerulosa, Zona Fasciculata, Zona Retucularis, Medulla

2
Q

Name the secretory product of the Zona Glomerulosa of the adrenal gland.

A

Aldosterone

3
Q

Name the secretory products of the Zona Fasciculata of the adrenal gland.

A

Cortisol, sex products

4
Q

Name the secretory product of the Zona Reticularis of the adrenal gland.

A

Sex hormones (eg. Androgens)

5
Q

Name the secretory product of the medulla of the adrenal gland.

A

Catecholamines

6
Q

What is the primary regulatory control of the Zona Glomerulosa of the adrenal gland?

A

Renin-angiotensin

7
Q

What is the primary regulatory control of the Zona Fasciculata of the adrenal gland?

A

ACTH, hypothalamic CRH

8
Q

What is the primary regulatory control of the Zona Reticularis of the adrenal gland?

A

ACTH, hypothalamic CRH

9
Q

What is the primary regulatory control of the medulla of the adrenal gland?

A

Preganglionic sympathetic fibers

10
Q

What is the most common tumor of the adrenal medulla in adults? In children? Which one causes episodic HTN?

A

Adults- pheochromocytoma; children- neuroblastoma; episodic HTN associated with pheo only

11
Q

Describe the drainage of the L adrenal gland.

A

Left adrenal to left adrenal vein to left renal vein to IVC

12
Q

Describe the drainage of the R adrenal gland.

A

Right adrenal to right adrenal vein to IVC

13
Q

What 2 hormones that are made in the hypothalamus are secreted by the posterior pituitary?

A

Vasopressin (ADH) and oxytocin

14
Q

Name the hormones secreted by the anterior pituitary.

A

FSH, LH, ACTH, TSH, Prolactin, GH, MSH (*Remember FLAT-PiG mnemonic!)

15
Q

What is the difference between the alpha and beta hormone subunit?

A

Alpha- hormone subunit common to TSH, LH, FSH, hCG; Beta- determines hormone specificity

16
Q

Islets of Langerhans are collections of which 3 endocrine cells? What do each of them secrete?

A

Alpha (secretes glucagon-peripheral), beta (insulin-central), delta (somatostatin-interspersed)

17
Q

What is the major regulator of insulin release?

A

Glucose

18
Q

Insulin moves glucose into/out of cells.

A

Into

19
Q

ATP generated by glucose metabolism closes _____ channels and depolarizes _____ cell membrane, which opens voltage-gated _____ channels; this influx stimulates _____ secretion.

A

K+; beta; Ca2+; insulin

20
Q

In which organs is insulin-independent glucose uptake seen?

A

Brain, RBCs, Intestine, Cornea, Kidney, Liver (*Remember BRICKL mnemonic!)

21
Q

Match the receptor GLUT-1, GLUT-2, GLUT-4 to the following organs: Skeletal muscle, brain, kidney, liver, adipose tissue, RBCs, B islet cells, small intestine.

A

GLUT-4, 1, 2, 2, 4, 1, 2, 2

22
Q

T/F: GLUT-1 is insulin dependent, GLUT-2 is insulin independent, and GLUT-4 is bidirectional.

A

FALSE: GLUT-1 is insulin independent, GLUT-2 is bidirectional, GLUT-4 is insulin dependent

23
Q

State whether insulin inc/dec the following: triglyceride synthesis and storage; sodium retention in kidneys; glucagon release.

A

Inc; inc; dec

24
Q

Hypoglycemia, somatostatin, and alpha-2 agonists all inc/dec insulin.

A

Dec

25
Q

The brain depends on glucose for metabolism under normal circumstances and uses _____ in starvation.

A

Ketone bodies

26
Q

T/F: RBCs always depend on glucose because they have no mitochondria for aerobic metabolism.

A

TRUE

27
Q

Name 4 catabolic effects of glucagon.

A

Glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis, lipolysis and ketone production

28
Q

Glucagon is inhibited by hyperglycemia and which 2 hormones?

A

Insulin, somatostatin