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Flashcards in Endocrine Control Of Fuel Delivery To Cells Deck (28):
1

Why do we need food

Provide fuel to supply energy for work to perform biochemical reactions

To supply basic building blocks

2

How long will the total circulation concentration of glucose, fatty acids and tags in normal individual provide for energy requirements

1-2 hours

3

How long will an average individuals supply of glycogen stored in the liver and muscle ener for

8 hours

4

Why does the body proceed to break down other substances instead of glucose in starvation

To ensure the brain and heart maintain energy supply

5

When are these stores affected

Growth
After feeding
Between meals
Starvation
Disease
Pregnancy

6

What endocrine structurs are imp for metabolic regulations

Pancreatic endocrine structures
Anterior pituitary gland
Liver
Andrenal cortex
Adrenal medulla
Thyroid gland

7

What are islets of langehans

The endocrine sec part of the pancreas
Acinar cells
1-2% of pancreatic cells
3 types of sec cells

8

What are the 3 secretory cells of the islets of langehans

Alpha cells - glucagon
Beta cells - insulin
Alpha cells - somatostatin

9

What does insulin favour

Anabolism
Stimulate conversion -
Glucose to glycogen
FFA to tags
AAS to proteins

10

Is insulin a fed or hungry state hormone

Fed state when a lot of nutrients circulating

11

What does glucagon favour

Stimulating conversion of glycogen to glucose etc
Hungry state

12

What is insulin synthesised as and how is it converted to

Synthesised as pro hormone which is protealytic ally clipped to release mature peptide in secretion granules

13

What are he short lives of insuli and glucagon

Short
Insulin - 30 mins
Glucagon - 10 mins

14

What dos insulin stimulate

Glucose uptake by muscle and adipose tissue leading to reduction blood glucose levels

Causes GLUT4 transporters to be inserted in plasma mem from intracellular stores

15

What are the effects of insulin

Insulin activates the enzymes in liver and muscle which converts glucose to glycogen


In muscle and fat it stimulates the incorporation of amino acids into protein

Stimulates uptake of glucose from blood

Suppresses lipolysis while promote lipogenesis

Anabolic home one

16

What factors promote insulin secretion

Increase circulatory levels of plasma concentration of Glucose

Increase amino acids arginine and leu

Increase parasymp innervation

Increase glucagon

Increase of cck, gastric

17

What are the inhibiting factors of secretion of insulin

Decrease glucose
Increase symp activity
Increase somatostatin release
Increase cortisol

18

Does oral or intravenous infusion glucose induce a hater secretion of insulin

Oral

19

What are incretin hormones

Released form intestine
Glucose like peptide - 1
Glucose dept insulinotropic peptide

20

What do the incretin hormones do

Sec by intestine and stimulate insulin secretion of pancreatic cells
Feed forward mechanism
Regulate appetite

Only potentiate insulin release when plamsa glucose raised

21

Explain type 1 diabetes mellitus

Childhood onset
Little/no insulin

Affects 10-20% diabetics
Defect beta cells function
Ketosis develops
Insulin injections
Symptoms rapid development

22

Explain type 2 diabetes mellitus

Adult onset common children now too
Insulin secretion may be normal
Affect 80-90%
Defect in insulin sensitivity
Ketones rare
Diet and exercise and oral drugs for treatment
Symptoms slow development

23

How is lack of insulin or impaired cellular repsonse to insulin tested

Oral glucose tolerance test

24

What are the effects of severe diabetes

Very high plasma concentration of glucose after a meal
Glyosuria
Increased lipolysis to break fa for energy instead of glucose
Metab fa and generate a lot of acetyl coA gives ketone bodies and ketosis
Lower blood ph metab acidosis

25

What are the effects of glucagon

Increases hepatic glycogenolysis blood glucose rises
Decrease hepatic glycogen syn
Increases hepatic glycogenolysis
Decreases amino acid uptake in muscle increase as uptake by liver

Catabolic

26

What so the control of glucagon release

Decrease blood glucose increase glucagon secretion

Amino acids like arginine increase glucagon if protein high stim release of insulin and glucagon

If there is a decrease of fatty acid circulation there is an increase of glucagon secretion

Sympathetic nerve activity stimulates release during exercise

27

What are the effects of exercise

Increased sympathetic stimulation

Increases glucagon and decreases insulin

Increases adrenaline

Net effect to increase glucose and fuel output and suppress storage

28

What is metabolism

Refers to all the chemical reactions that occur in the body
Anabolism and catabolism and transformation of proteins carbs and fat