Endocrine Drugs & Antidiabetic Agents Flashcards Preview

Pharmacology > Endocrine Drugs & Antidiabetic Agents > Flashcards

Flashcards in Endocrine Drugs & Antidiabetic Agents Deck (40):
1

excessive growth after puberty

Acromegaly

2

a decrease in corticosteroid secretion; adrenal sufficiency

Addison's disease

3

anterior pituitary gland

Adenohypophysis

4

glands in the pituitary system consisting of the adrenal medulla & adrenal cortex that produces two types of corticosteroids: glucocorticoids (cortisol) & mineralocorticoids (aldosterone)

Adrenal Glands

5

hormone released by the pituitary corticotrophs; which stimulates the release of glucocorticoids (cortisol), mineralocorticoids (aldosterone) & androgen from the adrenal cortex

Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)

6

hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary gland that promotes water reabsorption from the renal tubules to maintain water balance in body fluids; "vasopressin"

Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)

7

hormones that promote sodium retention and potassium excretion; a deficiency can result in serious illness or death

Corticosteroids

8

an increase in corticosteroid secretion; also called adrenal hypersecretion

Cushing's Syndrome

9

a deficiency of ADH which causes large amounts of water to be excreted by the kidneys which can lead to severe fluid volume deficit & electrolyte imbalances

Diabetes Insipidus (DI)

10

excessive growth in childhood

Gigantism

11

hormone released from the anterior pituitary gland that affects carbohydrate, protein & fat metabolism, muscle & blood activity; can cause sodium reabsorption from the kidney resulting in water retention, potassium loss and increased BP

Glucocorticoids

12

the most common type of hyperthyroidism caused by hyperfunction of the thyroid gland; characterized by rapid pulse, palpitations, excessive perspiration, heat intolerance, nervousness, irritability, bulging eyes & weight loss; "thyrotoxicosis"

Graves' Disease

13

an increase in circulating T4 & T3 levels, which usually results from an overactive thyroid gland or excessive output of thyroid hormones from one or more thyroid nodules

Hyperthyroidism

14

the pituitary gland

Hypophysis

15

a decrease in thyroid hormone secretion having either a primary cause (thyroid glad disorder) or a secondary cause (lack of TSH secretion)

Hypothyroidism

16

a type of corticosteroid that secretes aldosterone

Mineralocorticoids

17

the posterior pituitary gland

Neurohypophysis

18

a hormone secreted by the parathyroid glands which regulates calcium levels in the blood

Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)

19

hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis in response to thyroid-releasing hormone (TRH) from the hypothalamus which stimulates the thyroid gland to release thyroxine (t4) & triiodothyronine (T3)

Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH)

20

Graves' disease, the most common type of hyperthyroidism caused by hyperfunction of the thyroid gland

Thyrotoxicosis

21

hormones secreted by the thyroid gland that regulate protein synthesis & enzyme activity & stimulate mitochondrial oxidation

Thyroxine (T4) & Triiodothyromine (T3)

22

Hormones Secreted from the Adenohypophysis (Anterior Pituitary Gland)

(1) growth hormone, (2) thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), (3) Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and (4) gonadotropins (follicle-stimulating hormones (FSH) & luteinizing hormone (LH))

23

Hormones Secreted from the Neurohypophysis (Posterior Pituitary Gland)

Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) & Ocytocin

24

Side Effects of Thyroxine Drugs (T4)

N&V, anorexia, diarrhea, cramps, tremors, nervousness, irritability, insomnia, headache, weight loss, diaphoresis, amenorrhea

25

Side Effects of Triiodothyronine Drugs (T3)

cardiac side effects

26

occurs when more insulin is administered than needed for glucose metabolism

Hypoglycemic Reaction

27

occurs when there is an inadequate amount of insulin & sugar cannot be metabolized, so fat catabolism occurs...the use of fatty acids for energy results

Ketoacidosis

28

synthetic preparations that stimulate insulin release or otherwise alter the metabolic response to hyperglycemia

Oral Hypoglycemic Drugs or Oral Antidiabetic Drugs

29

increased thirst

Polydipsia

30

increased urine output

Polyuria

31

increased hunger

Polyphagia

32

type of diabetes caused by viral infection, environmental conditions and genetic factors

Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

33

type of diabetes caused by heredity and obesity

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

34

Symptoms of Hypoglycemic Reaction

nervousness, trembling, lack of coordination, cold/clammy skin, headache, combativeness, incoherence

35

Rapid-Acting Insulins

clear solution without any added substance to prolong insulin action...lispro (Humalog) & human insulin aspart (NovoLog)

36

Intermediate-Acting Insulin

cloudy solution that contains protamine, a protein that prolongs the action of insulin or zinc, which slows the onset of insulin action (pt. needs several injections per day)...neutral-protamine (NPH), Lente, Humulin N

37

Long-Acting Insulin

clear solution that is given one time per day...Lantus, Levemir

38

Side Effects of Oral Antidiabetics

hypoglycemia (headache, nervousness, sweating, tremors, rapid pulse), visual disturbances, gastric upset

39

drug that increases blood sugar within 10 min. to treat insulin-induced hypoglycemic reactions

Glucagon

40

drugs that increase tissue response to insulin & decrease glucose production by the liver

Oral Antidiabetic Drugs