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Flashcards in endocrine glands Deck (68):
1

– stimulates growth of bones, muscles and organs by increasing gene expression

GH

2

-resists protein breakdown and favor fat breakdown during periods of starvation

GH

3

↓GH, young person, small but normally proportioned

PITUITARY DWARF

4

- ↑GH present before bones finish growing in length
-exaggerated bone growth
-abnormally tall

GIANTISM

5

↑GH after completion of bone growth in length
-abnormally large facial features and hands

GIANTISM

6

PERIODS OF INCREASED GH SECRETION

↑GH after completion of bone growth in length
-abnormally large facial features and hands

7

somatomedins
-influences part of the effect of GH
-similar in structures to insulin and can bind to insulin receptors
-secretion from tissues is increased by GH

insulin-like growth factors

8

-binds to MBR on cells in cortex of adrenal glands
-increases the secretion of cortisol/hydrocortisone
-required to keep adrenal cortex from degenerating

Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

9

-bind to melanocytes in skin and increase skin pigmentation

Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

10

– bind to MBR on cells of gonads
-regulate growth, development, and functioning of gonads

Gonadotropins

11

cause the ovulation of oocytes and secretion of estrogen and progesterone

luteinizing hormone

12

-stimulates interstitial cells of the testes to secrete testosterone

Interstitial Cell-stimulating hormone

13

stimulates development of follicles in ovaries and sperm cells

Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) –

14

binds to MBR in cells of breast
-helps promote development of breast during pregnancy

prolactin

15

-stimulates the production of milk following pregnancy

prolactin

16

binds to MBR on melanocytes
-causes MBR on melanocytes to synthesize melanin
-structure is similar to ACTH

Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)

17

-increases water reabsorption by kidney tubules (result: less water lost as urine)
-causes blood vessels to constrict

ADH VASOPRESSIN

18

– caused by lack of ADH secretion
-production of large amount of dilute urine

DIABETES INSIPIDUS

19

causes contraction of smooth muscle cells of uterus
-causes milk letdown from breasts of lactating women

OXYTOCIN

20

-made up of 2 lobes connected by isthmus
-lobes are located on each side of trachea
-one of the largest endocrine glands
-appears more red because it is highly vascular
-surrounded by a connective tissue capsule

THYROID GLAND

21

secrete hormone calcitonin

C Cells or parafollicular cells

22

enlargement of thyroid gland
-excess TSH

GOITER

23

– lack of thyroid hormones

HYPOTHYROIDISIM

24

– hypothyroidism in infants
-mental retardation, short stature, abnormally formed skeletal structure

cretinism

25

hypothyroidism in adults
-decreased metabolic rate, sluggishness, reduced ability to perform routine tasks

myxedema

26

elevated rate of thyroid hormone secretion
-metabolic rate, extreme nervousness, chronic fatigue

hyperthyroidism

27

β€’ Graves disease – results when immune system produces abnormal proteins that are similar in structure and function to TSH
-often accompanied by exophthalmia (bulging of eyes)

graves disease

28

required to synthesize thyroid hormones
-taken up by thyroid follicles

IODINE

29

secreted if blood concentration of Ca becomes too high
-binds to MBR of osteoclasts and reduces rate of Ca resorption by inhibiting osteoclasts

Calcitonin

30


-embedded in posterior wall of the thyroid gland
-secrete parathyroid hormone

PARATHYROID GLANDS

31

Binds to MBR of renal tubule cells – increases active vitamin D formation (Vit D – increase Ca absorption)

Parathyroid Hormone

32

Binds to receptors on osteoblasts, increase osteoclast activity, cause resorption of bone tissue, release of Ca

Parathyroid Hormone

33

Binds to receptors on renal tubules – decreases rate at which Ca is lost in urine

Parathyroid Hormone

34

Acts on target tissues to raise blood Ca levels to normal

Parathyroid Hormone

35

abnormally high rate of PTH secretion

hyperparathyroidism

36

-increase in bone resorption and elevated blood Ca levels
-bones become soft, deformed, easily fractured
-nerve and muscle cells are less excitable = fatigue and muscle weakness

hyperparathyroidism

37

– abnormally low rate of PTH secretion

hypoparathyroidism

38

-low levels of Ca, decrease bone resorption
-nerve and muscle cells are more excitable = muscle cramps or tetanus = severe tetanus = breathing stops

hypoparathyroidism

39

fight-or-flight hormones

Epinephrine and Norepinephrine

40

type of steroid hormone of the adrenal cortex
helps regulate blood volume and blood levels of K and Na

Mineralocorticoids

41

-binds to receptor molecules in kidneys
-affects intestine, sweat glands, salivary glands
-causes Na and H2O to be retained in the body
-increases the rate at which K is eliminated

aldosterone

42

release is caused by low blood pressure

renin

43

causes smooth muscle in blood vessels to constrict
-acts on adrenal cortex to increase aldosterone secretion

Angiotensin II

44

class of steroid hormone of adrenal cortex
helps regulate blood nutrient levels
-major hormone: cortisol

Glucocorticoids

45

– increases fat and protein breakdown
-increases fat and protein conversion to usable forms of energy
-causes proteins to be broken down to amino acids
-reduces inflammatory and immune responses
-secreted in large amounts in response to stressful conditions so it aids the body by providing energy sources for tissues

CORTISOL

46

reduces inflammation cause by injuries
-reduces immune and inflammatory responses resulting from allergic reactions or abnormal responses

CORTISONE

47

– regulate secretion of cortisol from adrenal cortex

ACTH

48

– stimulate the development of male sexual characteristics

ANDROGENS

49

secrete insulin (beta cells) and glucagon (alpha cells) which help regulate blood levels of nutrients

PANCREATIC ISLETS

50

nervous system’s main source of energy

glucose

51

– reduced pH of body fluids below normal condition
-result of low blood glucose levels, which causes the breakdown of fats, which causes the release of fatty acids and ketones

acidosis

52

– respond to elevated blood glucose levels and increased parasympathetic stimulation associated with digestion of a meal
-respond to blood levels of certain amino acids

insulin

53

-binds to MBR receptors and increases the rate of glucose and amino acid uptake
-glucose is converted to glycogen or fat, amino acid to protein

insulin

54

– too little insulin secreted
-tissues cannot take up glucose effectively

Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

55

too much insulin present, no glucose, brain malfunctions (no energy source)
-causes disorientation, convulsions, loss of consciousness

Insulin shock

56

– insufficient numbers of insulin receptors on target cells
-defective receptors

Type 2 Diabetus Mellitus

57

– released from alpha cells when blood glucose are low
-binds to MBR in liver, causing glycogen β†’ glucose

Glucagon

58

male sex hormone, secreted by testes
-growth and development of male reproductive structures, muscle enlargement, growth of body hair, etc

Testosterone –

59

– development and function of female reproductive structures
-enlargement of breasts and distribution of fat
-menstrual cycle

Estrogen & Progesterone

60

stimulate secretion of hormones from ovaries and testes
-also has a negative feedback

LH & FSH –

61


-upper part of thoracic cavity
-important in the function of immune system
-secretes thymosin
-most important early in life

Thymus

62

aids the development of T cells (WBC)

thymosin

63

help protect body against infection

T cells –

64


-small, pine-cone shaped structure
-located superior and posterior to the thalamus
-produces melatonin

PINEAL GLAND

65

– function as intercellular signals, widely distributed throughout the body
-not transported long distances
-cause contraction and relaxation of different smooth muscles
-used medically to initiate abortion
-inflammation: released by damaged tissues and cause blood vessel dilation, localized swelling, pain
-necessary for normal blood clotting

prostaglandins

66

secreted by kidneys
-respond to reduced O2 levels in kidney
-acts on bone marrow to increase production of RBC

Erythropoietin

67

– similar in structure and function to LH

Human chorionic gonadotropin

68

important source of hormones that maintain pregnancy and stimulate breast development

Placenta

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