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Flashcards in endocrine patho Deck (41)
1

anterior pituitary aka

adenohypophysis

2

posterior pituitary aka

neurohypophysis

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anterior and posterior pituitaries connected to hypothalamus how? x2

anterior: portal vesselsposterior: nerve tract (supraopticohypophysial)

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adenohypophysis secretes...

GHACTHLH, FSHMSHPRL

5

neurohypophysis secretes...

HP & POA!hormones, posterior pituitary: oxytocin & ADH

6

anterior pituitary anatomy

pars distalispars tuberalispars intermedia

7

growth hormone functions

- direct effects d/t GH binding on target cell- indirect: mediated mostly by insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) to promote bone growth- etc1. fat utilization (energy)2. ↑ carb use (↓ gluc uptake of tissues, ↑ glu production in liver, ↑ insulin secretion)3. stim cartilage & bone growth (stim liver to create somatomedins)- somatomedin C most important

8

growth hormone stimulated & inhibited by x2

stimulated by GHRH (from hypothalamus)inhibited by somatostatin

9

how growth ↑ carb use

↓ gluc uptake of tissues↑ glu production in liver↑ insulin secretion

10

adrenocorticotropic hormone: function

stimulates adrenal cortext- glucocorticoids secreted- some control over aldosterone (CRH released in resp to stress events; inhibited by glucocorticoids)

11

thyroid stimulating hormone: function

circulates, binds w receptor sites in thyroid follicular cells

12

TRH to T4 pathway

in response to concentration free T4 → hypothalamus releases TRH → anterior pituitary → thyroid gland → TSH → T4free T4 can also inhibit hypothalamus & pituitary

13

prolactin fxn

lactation, target mammary glandsstimulated by estrogen

14

follicle-stimulating hormone fxn (females & males)

females: stim ovaries to produce hormones - follicular phase: estradiol- progesterone: lutealmales: stim spermatogenesis (Sertoli cells)- produces inhibin = neg feedback to reduce FSH

15

luteinizing hormone (females & males)

females: stim corpus luteum to secrete progesterone, surge triggers ovluation- promotes luteinzation of granulosa in dominant folliclemales: stim leydig cells → testosterone

16

melanocyte stimulating hormone fxn

causes darkening of skin (melanin pigments) - stimulated by exposure to light

17

antidiuretic hormone: fxns & target

aka vasopressin- normal osmolality of body fluids- blood volumetargets distal renal tubule & principal cells of collecting ducts (virutually impermeable to H2O otherwise)

18

antidiuretic hormone released in response to

↑ ECF osmolality↓ blood vol / pressureif vasodilatory shock, ADH levels can ↑ 100x

19

oxytocin function: females & males

female: uterine motility (enhanced contraction, prevents excessive bleeding, promotes placental delivery, prevents), milk letdownmale: role in sperm motility (?)

20

thyroid gland secerts

T4, T3 (depend on TSH)calcitonin

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90% of metabolically active hormone secreted by thyroid gland

T4

22

T4 vs T3 potency

T3 4x potent but exists for a shorter period in circulation

23

substrate that binds to iodine to form thyroid hormone

tyrosine amino acids, which are in thyroglobulin moleculesresultant thyroid hormones then hang out in the follicular colloid until needed - cleaved into active forms of T4 & T3

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thyroid hormone fxns: cellular↑↓

↑ gene transcription ↑ fxnal activity throughout body↑ metabolic activity (carb, fat, basal metabolism)↑ #/activity mitochondria (more ATP)↑ active ion transport (through cell membranes)

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thyroid hormone fxns: body

↓ body weight↑ blood flow, CO, HR, contractilitynormal atrial pressure↑ respiration, GI motility↑ rate of secretion of other endocrine glands

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TSH fxn

increases...- proteolysis of thyroglobulin (releases T4 to blood)- iodide pump activity (iodide trapping)- tyrosine iodination - #, size, secretory activity of thyroid cells

27

parathyroid gland anatomy & fxn

- regulates serum Ca- works in conjunction w Vit D- affects bone, renal Ca deposition/reabs- produces PTH (↑ Ca, ↓ phos)

28

primary glucose transporter in body

Glut 4

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insulin: fxn re: protein metabolism & growth

promotes protein synthesis & storage1. stimulates aa transport into cells2. increases mRNA translation3. increases rate of transcription of certain DNA sequences4. inhibits catabolism of proteins5. liver: ↓ rate of glyconeogenesis

30

glucagon secreted by

alpha cells of pancreas in response to low levels of blood glucose

31

glucagon fxns

↑ gluconeogenesisactivates adipose cell lipase: more fatty acids for energy↑ glucagon can cause1. ↑ strength of the heart2. ↑ blood flow to certain tissues (esp kidneys)3. enhances bile secretion4. ⊣ gastric acid secretion

32

somatostatin fxns

⊣ glucagon, insulin secretion↓ motility in stomach, duodenum, gallbladder↓ secretion, abs in GI tract

33

somatostatin released by

delta cells of pancreas

34

cortisol: metabolic effects

1. Stimulates gluconeogenesis- ↑ enzymes req to convert aa to glucose (liver cells)- mobilization of aa from muscle tissues2. ↓ protein synthesis and cellular protein

35

cortisol: glucose effects

1. ↓ glucose utilization by cells (mechanism poorly understood)2. ↑ blood glucose - ↑ glucose production- ↑ utilization by cells

36

cortisol regulated by

ACTH (anterior pituitary)

37

cortisol & inflammation

1. stabilizes lysosomal membranes (prev contents from expulsion)2. ↓ capillary permeability (worsens inflammation a bit)3. ↓ WBC migration, phagocytosis of damaged cells4. suppresses immune system (↓ lymphocyte reproduction)5. attenuates fever (↓ temp = ↓ vasodilation)

38

aldosterone fxns

Na retention by ↑ tubular reabsUrine excretion K (∴ ↓ ECF K)helps kidneys excrete excess K, ↑ blood vol + atrial pressure

39

most potent of all naturally occuring mineralocorticoids

aldosterone

40

aldosterone secretion regulation x4

1. ↑ extracellular K+ 2. ↑ extracellular angiotensin II 3. ↑ extracellular Na, slightly ↓ aldosterone secretion4. ACTH req for secretion but has little effect on controlling rate

41

where are catecholamines stored?

chromaffin cells of adrenal medula