Endocrine: Symptomatic & Diagnostic Terms Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Endocrine: Symptomatic & Diagnostic Terms Deck (60):
1

protrusion of one or both eyeballs, often because of thyroid dysfunction or a tumor behind the eyeball

exophthalmos/us

2

glucose (sugar) in the urine

glucosuria/glycosuria

3

shaggy; an excessive growth of hair especially in unusual places

hirsutism

4

an abnormally high level of calcium in the blood

hypocalcemia

5

high blood sugar

hyperglycemia

6

low blood sugar

hypoglycemia

7

an abnormally high level of potassium in the blood

hyperkalemia

8

deficient level of potassium in the blood

hypokalemia

9

excessive level of sodium ions in the blood

hypernatremia

10

low level of sodium ions in the blood

hyponatremia

11

abnormally increased secretion

hypersecretion

12

abnormally decreased secretion

hyposecretion

13

-aka ketoacidosis
-presence of an abnormal amount of ketone bodies (acetone, beta-hydroxybutyric acid, and a acetoacetic acid) in the blood and urine indicating an abnormal utilization of carbs as seen in uncontrolled diabetes and starvation

ketosis

14

all chemical processes in the body that result in growth, energy production, elimination of waste, and other body functions

metabolism

15

excessive thirst

polydipsia

16

excessive urination

polyuria

17

collection of signs and symptoms caused by an excessive level of cortisol hormone from any cause, such as a result of excessive production by the adrenal gland (often caused by a tumor), or more commonly as a side effect of a treatment with glucocorticoid hormones such as prednisone for asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus or other inflammatory diseases; symptoms include upper body obesity, facial puffiness, hyperglycemia, weakness, thin and easy bruised skin with stria (stretch marks), hypertension, and osteoporosis

Cushing syndrome

18

excessive output of the adrenal secretion of androgen in adult women owing to tumor or hyperplasia (increased number of cells and tissue); evidenced by amenorrhea, acne, hirsutism, and deepening of the voice

adrenal virilism

19

DM

-diabetes mellitus
-metabolic disorder caused by an abnormal utilization of insulin secreted by the pancreas; evidenced by hyperglycemia and glucosuria

20

DKA

-diabetic ketoacidosis
-presence of an abnormal amount of ketone bodies (acetone, beta-hydroxybutyric acid, and a acetoacetic acid) in the blood and urine indicating an abnormal utilization of carbs as seen in uncontrolled diabetes and starvation

21

hormone secreted by the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas responsible for regulating the metabolism of glucose

insulin

22

diabetes in which there is no beta cell production of insulin- the patient is dependent on insulin for survival

type 1 diabetes mellitus

23

diabetes in which the body produces insulin, but not enough, or there is insulin resistance- the patient is not usually dependent on insulin for survival

type 2 diabetes mellitus

24

condition resulting from an excessive amount of insulin in the blood that draws sugar out of the bloodstream, resulting in hypoglycemia, fainting, and convulsions; often caused by an overdose of insulin or by a tumor of the pancreas

hyperinsulinism

25

inflammation of the pancreas

pancreatitis

26

hyper secretion of the parathyroid gland, usually caused by a tumor

acromegaly

27

condition of abnormal increase in urine output most commonly caused by an inadequate secretion of pituitary antidiuretic hormone; symptoms include polyuria and polydipsia; urine appears colorless due to the inability of the kidneys to concentrate urine

diabetes insipidus

28

condition of congenital hypo secretion of growth hormone slowing growth and causing a short yet proportionate stature, often treated during childhood with growth hormone

pituitary dwarfism

29



enlargement of the thyroid gland caused by thyroid dysfunction, tumor, lack of iodine in the diet, or inflammation

goiter

30

-aka Graves disease, thyrotoxicosis
-condition of hyper secretion of the thyroid gland characterized by exophthalmia, tachycardia, goiter, and tumor

hyperthyroidism

31

condition of hypo secretion of the thyroid gland causing low thyroid levels in the blood that result in sluggishness, slow pulse, and often obesity

hypothyroidism

32

advanced hypothyroidism in adults characterized by sluggishness, slow pulse, puffiness in the hands and face, and dry skin

myxedema

33



condition of congenital hypothyroidism in children that results in a lack of mental development and dwarfed physical stature; the thyroid gland is either congenitally absent or imperfectly developed

cretinism

34



measurement of the level of sugar in the blood

blood sugar (BS)

35

-fasting blood sugar
-measurement of blood sugar level a fast of 12 hours

FBS

36

measurement of blood sugar level after a meal, commonly after 2 hours

postprandial blood sugar (PPBS)

37

measurement of the body's ability to metabolize carbs by administering a prescribed amount of glucose after a fasting period, then measuring blood and urine for glucose levels every hour thereafter- usually 4-6 hours

glucose tolerance test (GTT)

38

molecule in a hemoglobin that rises in the blood as a result of an increased level of blood sugar; it is a common blood test used in diagnosing and treating diabetes, also known as glycosylate hemoglobin (HbA1c)

glycohemoglobin

39

measurement of the level of specific ions (Na, K, CO2, and Cl) in the blood; electrolyte balance is essential for normal metabolism

electrolytes

40

measurement of thyroid hormone levels in the blood plasma to determine efficiency of glandular secretions, including T3, T4, and TSH

thyroid function study

41



chemical tests to determine the presence of sugar or ketone bodies in the urine; used as a screen for diabetes

urine sugar and ketone studies

42

CT of the head is used to obtain a transverse view of the pituitary gland

computed tomography (CT)

43

nonionizing images of magnetic resonance are useful in identifying abnormalities of pituitary, pancreas, adrenal, and thyroid glands

magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

44

sonographic images are used to identify endocrine pathology, such as thyroid ultrasound

sonography

45



nuclear image involving scan of the thyroid to visualize the radioactive accumulation of previously ingested isotopes to detect thyroid nodules or tumors

thyroid uptake and image

46

excision of the adrenal gland

adrenalectomy

47

excision of the pituitary gland

hypophysectomy

48

excision of the pancreas

pancreatectomy

49

excision of the parathyroid gland

parathyroidectomy

50

excision of the thymus gland

thymectomy

51

excision of the thyroid gland

thyroidectomy

52

TSH

thyroid stimulating hormone
-stimulates secretion from thyroid gland

53

PTH



-parathyroid hormone
-regulates calcium and phosphorus metabolism

54

LH

-luteinizing hormone
-causes ovulation; stimulates the secretion of progesterone by corpus lute; causes secretion of testosterone in testes

55

FSH

-follicle-stimulating hormone
-initiates growth of ovarian follicle; stimulates secretion of estrogen in females and sperm production in males

56

GH

-growth hormone
-influences growth

57

ACTH

-adrenocorticotropic hormone
-stimulates secretion of the adrenal cortex

58

HRT

hormone replacement therapy

59

hyper secretion of the parathyroid gland, usually caused by a tumor

hyperparathyroidism

60



hypo secretion of the parathyroid glands

hypoparathyroidism