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Flashcards in Endocrine System Deck (83):
1

Pituitary Gland

""Master Gland"": Two parts (neurohypophysis [posterior], adenohypophysis [anterior])

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Pituitary Gland location

Hangs from hypothalmus, protected by sella turcica of the sphenoid bone

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Posterior pituitary gland (Neurohypophysis)

Stores ADH (vasopressin) and Oxytocin, releases when neural impulses arrive from hypothalamus. Hypothalamus produces neurohypophyseal hormones and transports them for storage in the posterior pituitary. 

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Anterior pituitary gland (Adenohypophysis)

Produces GH, TSH, ACTH, prolactin, FSH, LH, and other releasing hormones. Larger than posterior lobe. Only lobe to produce hormones (posterior only STORES hormones from hypothalamus)

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ADH

Antidiuretic hormone, or "Vasopressin", maintains BP by reabsorption of water by kidney tubules and vasoconstriction

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Oxytocin

Stimulates contraction of uterus and release of milk. Fx by way of positive feedback loops. Produced in hypothalamus and stored in the posterior pituitary. 

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Hormone

Chemical substance secreted by a gland into the BLOODSTREAM that controls another gland or body system ("target").

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Diuresis

Increased or excessive formation of urine

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Amines

Variations of thyrosine, include thyroxin, epi, and nor-epi

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Proteins

Chains of amino acids, insulin, growth hormone, and calcitonin

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Steroids

Made of cholesterol, cortisol, aoldosterone, estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone. Lipid-soluble.

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Most hormones work on this feedback mechanism

Negative feedback mechanism (Oxytocin is an exception, and in cases of BP regulation)

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What do endocrine glands respond to?

Blood level changes or other hormones present in the blood stream

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Hypothalmus

Produce Oxytocin and ADH/vasopressin.

Releasing hormones for anterior pituitary

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Pineal Gland

aka "Epiphysis"

Produces Melatonin

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Thymus Gland

T-cell maturation

Huge when we're born and gets smaller with age

Anterior superior mediastinum: in front of heart and behind sternum

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Pancreas

Insulin: secreted by beta cells in re: high blood sugar; fx to decrease blood sugar

Glucagon: secreted by alpha cells in re: low blood sugar; fx to increase blood sugar

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Ovaries

Estrogen, progesterone, and Inhibin

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Reabsorption

""Put it back in the blood stream""

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Parathyroid Glands

PTH: parathyroid hormone can increase calcium in blood stream. They are found behind the thyroid, pea shaped and can have 3-6 other them.

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Adrenal (suprarenal) Glands

Cortex: Aldosterone, cortisol, sex hormones

Medulla: Epi and Nor-epi

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Testes

Testosterone, Inhibin

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Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)

Produced in anterior pituitary, often in Re: to biological stress

Increases secretion of cortisol by the adrenal glands

 

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T3 and T4

Triiodothyronine and Thyroxin: Increase energy production and rate of protein synthesis

Thryroid hormones

Regulation of metabolism

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GH

Growth Hormone: Increases mitosis, amino acid transport into cell, protein synthesis, and use of fats for energy

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Thyroid Gland location

Front and sides of trachea, the two lobes are connected by isthmus (bridge across trachea)

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Thyroid Gland

Produces T3, T4, and calcitonin (regulates calcium when calcium level too high ""calcitone it down"")

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Another name for a tumor

Neoplasm

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Graves Disease

Hyperthyroidism: Abnormal thyroid stimulating mechanism, increased iodide uptake, thyroid metabolism, growth, and secretion of hormone

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Thyrotoxic Crisis (thyroid storm)

worsening of a thyrotoxic state, possible death within 48 hours (no way to stop thyroid from releasing hormone, we can only sedate them)

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The hormone that lowers blood glucose level by enabling cells to take glucose in

Insulin

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The hormone that increases the rate of cell division

Growth Hormone

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Pancreas

Endocrine functions: islets of langerhans have three types of cells; Alpha (glucagon), Beta (insulin), and Delta

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Alpha Cells in Pancreas

Produce Glucagon

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Beta Cells in Pancreas

Produce Insulin

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Delta Cells in Pancreas

Somatostatin (growth hormone inhibiting hormone)

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The two hormones that regulate blood calcium level

Parathyroid Hormone and calcitonin

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The hormone that intiates egg or sperm production

FSH

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In men, the hormone necessary for maturation of sperm

Testosterone

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In women, the hormone that causes ovulation

LH

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Two hormones that cause the liver to change glycogen to glucose

glucagon and epinephrine

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The hormones that increase protein synthesis and the use of all 3 food types for energy

Thyroxine

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Hypoglycemia

ALOC first sign because brain is most sensitive to lack of glucose, signs of shock and eventual cellular death

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The hormone that slows peristalsis and dilates the bronchioles

Epinephrine

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The hormone that has an anti-inflammatory affect

Cortisol

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The hormone that increases water reabsorption by the kidneys

ADH

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The hormone that increases calcium reabsorption by the kidneys

PTH

 

INCREASES blood calcium (alternatively, calcitonin DECREASES blood calcium)

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The Hormone that increases sodium reabsorption by the kidneys

Aldosterone

 

Regulates blood pressure, produced by adrenal gland cortex

49

In women, two hormones that promote growth of blood vessels in the endometrium

estrogen and progesterone

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In women, the hormone that promotes growth of the corpus luteum

LH

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The hormone that stimulates milk production in the mammary glands

prolactin (produced in pituitary gland, myometrium, prostate, WBCs)

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The hormone that causes strong contractions of the uterus during labor

oxytocin

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The hormone that increases the use of fats and excess amino acids for energy while sparing glucose for use by the brain

cortisol

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Two hormones that help maintain BP by maintaining normal blood volume

ADH and aldosterone

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Localized hormones that are synthesized from the phospholipids of cell membranes (NOT by a gland)

prostaglandins

56

Glucagon

Does not add sugar, gluconeogenesis: stimulates the body to break down fats/etc to get glucose from other places in the body, works for a short period of time but builds up acid and the patient still needs glucose.

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Glucose cellular uptake WITHOUT insulin

1/10 as effective

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Steroid hormones are believed to exert their effect by stimulating the synthesis of:

Proteins

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The two-messenger mechanism of hormone action describes the action of:

protein hormones

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The hormone produced by the ovaries or testes that inhibits the secretion of FSH

Inhibin

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The hormone that brings about sleep

melatonin

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Aldosterone

Secretes potassium

Conserves sodium

Increased water retention

Increased blood pressure

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The secretion of insulin in response to fluctuating blood glucose levels is a __________feedback mechanism

Negative feedback mechanism

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Secretion of the hormones of anterior pituitary gland is regulated by:

Hypothalamus

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The stimulus for secretion of glucagon

hypoglycemia

66

The functions of epinephrine are very similar to the functions of:

The sympathetic nervous system

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The stimulus for the secretion of aldosterone

low blood sodium level

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Type II DM

Fixed number of insulin receptors get rid of them two ways, damage exceeds supply (get fat or pregnant) or wear out (with age or from excessive consumption = can't keep up with demand)

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DKA Tx

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

ABCs, intubation, fluid boluses (1-2 liters), cardiac monitoring (hyperkelemia)

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HONK

Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic non-ketotic coma

Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic non-ketotic coma- when the body does not kick in gluconeogenesis

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Adrenal Medulla

Catacholomines: Epi and Nor-epi

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Adrenal Cortex

Aldosterone, cortisol, sex hormones

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ADH

causes vasoconstriction and water reabsorption (fluid back into blood stream)

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Adrenal glands

on top of kidneys

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Adrenal cortex

 

Mineralcorticoids: aldosterone, regulate salt and water balance

Glucocorticoids: cortisol, mediate stress response

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Overheating

hyperthyroidism

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Infection or autoimmune of pancreas

type I DM

78

Islets of Langerhans

In the pancreas, make alpha, beta, and delta cells

79

Kussmaul breathing

Hyperglycemia

Kussmaul breathing is a deep and labored breathing pattern often associated with severe metabolic acidosis, particularly diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) but also renal failure.

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Respiratory depression

hypoglycemia

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Glucagon

Is a hormone and also a beta blocker (antidote for beta blocker overdose and calcium channel blocker overdose)

82

15mils of D50

25 grams of sugar

83