ENDOCRINE SYSTEM Flashcards Preview

T1 PHYSIOLOGY > ENDOCRINE SYSTEM > Flashcards

Flashcards in ENDOCRINE SYSTEM Deck (34):
1

What are Endocrine Glands?

Organs that secrete substances into blood in response to stimuli

2

Another term for 'Chemical Messengers/Hormones' is?

Mediator Molecules

3

Explain the function of Hormones.

They are released into one part of body to regulate activity in another.

4

Explain the process of hormones accessing the body cell.

- Released into interstitial fluid
- Into bloodstream
- To body cells

5

Explain how hormones deliver their 'message'.

- Hormones bind to receptors on cell membrane to target cells/organs
- Changes shape of receptors
- Activates pathways modifying cellular function (messaged delivered)

6

What does 'Upregulation' mean?

Increase in target cell receptors from lack of hormone circulation - Increases hormone sensitivity

7

What does 'Down Regulation' mean?

Decrease in target cell receptors from an excess of hormone circulation - Decreases hormone sensitivity

8

Explain how Hormone Levels fluctuate.

Will depend on demand and normal body rhythm

9

Explain how Normal Hormone Levels function.

Altered by environment/stress/inflammation/pathologies - absent in disease states

10

What are hormone levels managed through?

Negative Feedback Loops

11

List the Primary Glands of the Endocrine Glands.

Pituitary
Thyroid
Parathyroid
Adrenal
Pineal

12

What is the function of the Hypothalamus and Pituitary together?

Regulate growth/development/metabolism/homeostasis

13

Explain the function of the Hypothalamus.

Receives information from structures - controls ANS, regulate body temperature, thirst/hunger, emotions

14

What is the function of the Hypothalamus hormonally?

- Release of Anterior pituitary glands
- Regulate synthesis

15

What is the function of the Hypothalamus neurologically?

- Release Posterior pituitary glands
- Regulate synthesis

16

Describe the structure of the Pituitary/Hypophysis.

Small gland with 2 lobes in the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone

17

AKA for 'Adenohypophysis'?

Anterior pituitary Lobe

18

AKA for 'Neurohypophysis'?

Posterior pituitary Lobe

19

The hormone release from the Anterior Pituitary Gland is controlled...?

Hormonally by hypothalamus

20

List the functions of Human Growth Hormone.

- Stimulates growth tissue/repair
- Use lipids for energy
- Elevates blood glucose levels
- functions every few hours

21

Explain the Thyroid Stimulating Hormone.

Released by thyroid gland depending on thyroid levels in blood

22

Explain the Adrenocorticotropic Hormone.

Cortisol release from adrenal glands in stress-related stimuli

23

Explain the Luteinizing Hormone in females.

Triggers ovulation

24

Explain the Luteinizing Hormone in males.

Stimulates testes releasing testosterone

25

Explain the Follicle Stimulating Hormone in females.

Ovarian follicle development

26

Explain the Follicle Stimulating Hormone in males.

Sperm production in testes

27

Explain Prolactin.

initiates and maintains milk production in mammary glands

28

The hormone release from the Posterior Pituitary Gland is controlled...?

Neurologically by Hypothalamus

29

What are the two hormones from the Posterior Pituitary Gland?

- Oxytocin
- Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)

30

Explain Oxytocin.

Enhances smooth muscle contraction of uterus and stimulates milk ejection

31

Explain Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)/Vasopressin.

- Decrease urine production
- Causes arteriolar vasoconstriction

32

Describe the function of the Parathyroid Gland.

Increase blood calcium/magnesium/phosphate by increasing osteoclasts - works with kidneys to promote calcitriol

33

Describe the function of the Thyroid Gland.

Produces thyroid hormones and Calcitonin - controlled by hypothalamus-pituitary

34

What is the function of Calcitonin?

- Active form of VItD
- Decrease blood calcium levels by inhibiting osteoclast activity