Endocrine System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Endocrine System Deck (73):
1

This is the most common pituitary tumor

Prolactinoma with hyperprolactinemia

2

Prolactinoma may be caused by what 3 medications

Methyldopa
Reserpine
Estrogen therapy

3

Classic staining of cells in prolactinoma

Chromophobic

4

Classic staining of cells in somatotropic adenoma

Acidophilic

5

Classic staining of cells in corticotropic adenoma

Basophilic

6

Local compression effects may be caused by somatotropic adenoma due to expansion of the tumor within the

sella turcica

7

Generalized panhypopituitarism characterized by marked wasting.

Pituitary cachexia (Simmonds disease)

8

Difference between secondary adrenal failure and primary adrenal failure

Primary adrenal failure has hyperpigmentation (increased ACTH and beta-melanocyte stimulating hormone) - ADDISON DISEASE

Secondary adrenal failure lack hyperpigmentation (absent or decreased ACTH and beta-melanocyte stimulating hormone)

9

Most common cause of SIADH

Small cell carcinoma of the lung

10

Results in retention of water with consequent dilutional hyponatremia, reduced serum osmolality, and inability to dilute the urine.

SIADH

11

Deficiency of ADH

Diabetes insipidus

12

Other term for craniopharyngioma

Adamantinoma

13

This benign childhood tumor is derived from remnants of the Rathke pouch.

Craniopharyngioma (adamantinoma)


It is similar to ameloblastoma of the jaw.
Not a pituitary tumor

14

Characteristics of this tumor include nests and cords of squamous or columnar cells in a loose stroma, closely resembling the appearance of the embryonic tooth bud enamel organ. This tumor is often cystic; the lining epithelium of flat or columnar cells often expands into papillary projections.

Craniopharyngioma (adamantinoma)

15

The development of large pituitary adenomas following bilateral adrenalectomy.

Nelson syndrome


This is thought to be due to loss of feedback inhibition on growth of preexisting pituitary microadenomas.

16

The most common thyroid anomaly.

Thyroglossal duct cyst


No alteration in thyroid function

17

Ectopic thyroid tissue may be found anywhere along the course of the

thyroglossal duct

18

"Cold nodules" in nodular goiter are

Hypoplastic - benign; does not take up radioactive iodine

19

"Hot nodules" in nodular goiter are

Hyperplastic - malignant; takes up radioactive iodine

20

Severe mental retardation, impairment of physical growth with retarded bone development and dwarfism, large tongue, and protuberant abdomen are characteristics of

Cretinism

21

2 HLAs that are associated with Graves disease

HLA DR3 and HLA B8

22

A combination of hyperthyroidism, nodular goiter, and absence of exophthalmos.

Plummer disease

23

An ovarian teratoma made up of thyroid tissue; can be hyperfunctional.

Struma ovarii

24

Clinical characteristics of this autoimmune disorder include a slow, often inapparent course and a modestly enlarged and nontender thyroid

Hashimoto thyroiditis

25

Histologic characteristics of this autoimmune disorder include massive infiltrates of lymphocytes with germinal center formation; thyroid follicles are atrophic and Hürthle cells (epithelial cells with eosinophilic granular cytoplasm) are prominent

Hashimoto thyroiditis

26

Incidence of Hashimoto thyroiditis is increased in what 2 HLA-positive individuals

HLA-DR5 and HLA-B5

27

Focal destruction of thyroid tissue and granulomatous inflammation is characteristic.

Subacute (de Quervain, granulomatous) thyroiditis

28

Cause of subacute or de Quervain thyroiditis

Viral infection (mumps and coxsackievirus)

29

Thyroid disease that follows a self-limited course of several weeks’ duration consisting of a flu-like illness along with pain and tenderness of the thyroid, sometimes with transient hyperthyroidism.

Subacute (de Quervain, granulomatous) thyroiditis

30

Thyroid disease that is characterized by thyroid replacement by fibrous tissue; and can clinically mimic carcinoma.

Riedel thyroiditis

31

This carcinoma is the most common thyroid cancer.

Papillary carcinoma

32

Histologic characteristics of this thyroid carcinoma include papillary projections into gland-like spaces; tumor cells have characteristic “ground-glass” (“Orphan Annie”) nuclei; calcified spheres(psammoma bodies) may be present

Papillary carcinoma

33

Novel fusion gene associated with papillary carcinoma

ret-PTC

34

Common mutation in papillary carcinoma

B-type ras kinase (BRAF)

35

This cancer can be a long-term consequence of prior radiotherapy to the neck.

Papillar carcinoma

36

Thyroid cancer that is characterized histologically by relatively uniform follicles; with capsular and/or lymphovascular invasion

Follicular carcinoma

37

Best prognosis among thyroid cancers

Papillary carcinoma

38

This cancer originates from C cells of the thyroid.

Medullary carcinoma

39

Thyroid cancer that produces calcitonin, a calcium-lowering hormone

Medullary carcinoma

40

Histologic characteristics of this thyroid cancer include sheets of tumor cells in an amyloid-containing stroma.

Medullary carcinoma

41

Syndrome associated with medullary carcinoma of the thyroid

MEN-II

42

Poorest prognosis among the thyroid cancers

Anaplastic carcinoma

43

Cystic changes in bone due to osteoclastic resorption; fibrous replacement of resorbed bone may lead to the formation of non-neoplastic tumor-like masses (“brown tumor”).

Osteitis fibrosa cystica

Aka Von Recklinghausen disease of bone

44

The most common cause of secondary hyperparathyroidism

hypocalcemia of chronic renal disease

45

The most common cause of hypoparathyroidism is

accidental surgical excision during thyroidectomy

46

Most common cause of Cushing syndrome

Exogenous corticosteroid medication

47

Ectopic production of ACTH is usually from

Small cell carcinoma of the lung

48

Primary aldosteronism is also known as

Conn syndrome

49

Level of serum renin in primary vs secondary aldosteronism

Primary - decrease
Secondary - increase

50

Primary adrenocortical deficiency

Addison disease

51

This catastrophic adrenal insufficiency and vascular collapse is due to hemorrhagic necrosis of the adrenal cortex due to meningococcemia

Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome

often associated with disseminated intravascular coagulation

52

Tumor that is derived from extra-adrenal chromaffin cells

paraganglioma; if it is in adrenal medulla, PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA

53

This highly malignant catecholamine-producing tumor occurs in early childhood; comprised of small round blue cells which form characteristic rosette-like structures (“Homer Wright” pseudorosettes)

Neuroblastoma

It usually originates in the adrenal medulla and often presents as a large abdominal mass.

54

Neuroblastoma is characterized by amplification of what oncogen

N-myc

55

More differentiated form of neuroblastoma

Ganglioneuroma

56

What type of DM has more frequent positive family history?

Type 2

57

This autosomal dominant syndrome is characterized by mild hyperglycemia and hyposecretion of insulin but no loss of beta cells.

Maturity-onset diabetes mellitus of the young (MODY)

58

Bronze diabetes

Hereditary hemochromatosis

59

Amylin deposition in pancreatic islet cells

Type 2 DM

60

Nodular diabetic glomerulosclerosis

Kimmelstiel-Wilson disease

61

Tubular deposition of glycogen which is an uncommon result of prolonged untreated hyperglycemia.

Armanni-Ebstein lesion

62

Collections of lipid-laden macrophages in the dermis

Xanthomas

63

The most common islet cell tumor.

Insulinoma (beta cell tumor)

64

Marked gastric hypersecretion of hydrochloric acid, recurrent peptic ulcer disease, and hypergastrinemia

Zollinger-Ellison syndrome

65

This tumor causes a characteristic skin lesion called necrolytic migratory erythema.

Glucagonoma (alpha cell tumor)


Secondary DM

66

Watery Diarrhea, Hypokalemia, and Achlorhydria (WDHA) syndrome is also known as

Verner-Morrison syndrome or pancreatic choler


Associated with VIPoma

67

3 Ps in MEN I

Pituitary
Pancreatic
Parathyroid

May also include thyroid or adrenal

68

Wermer syndrome

MEN I

69

Sipple syndrome

MEN IIa

70

This syndrome includes pheochromocytoma, medullary carcinoma of the thyroid, and hyperparathyroidism due to hyperplasia or tumor.

MEN IIa (Sipple syndrome)

71

This syndrome includes pheochromocytoma, medullary carcinoma, and multiple mucocutaneous neuromas or ganglioneuromas.

MEN IIb (MEN III)

72

Mutation in MEN I

MEN 1 gene or MENIN

73

Mutation in MEN II

ret oncogene