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Flashcards in Endocrine System(A&P) Deck (57):
1

Endocrine System Function

-regulatory system
-endocrine glands
-growth and maturation
-metabolism
-reproduction

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Hormones

-chemicals secreted into the bloodstream which regulate the activities of the body systems and tissues
-target organ=tissue
-target organ is the tissue.organ that responds to hormone regulation
-classification of hormones: 1)protein 2)steroids

3

Protein(non steroids)

-classification of hormone
-range from simple polypeptides to complex proteins

4

Steroids

-classification of hormone
-cholesterol based molecules
-every hormone that is not produced by sex gland or adrenal gland it is a protein

5

Homeostasis

negative feedback

6

negative feedback

-production of the hormone or the effect of hormone production causes a decrease in its secretion

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positive feedback

-production of the hormone or the effect of hormone production causes an increase in its secretion
ex: applies to situation where there is an end point child birth

8

Pituitary gland-Master Gland-Hypophysis

-hormones regulate the activity of other glands
-activity of the pituitary is regulated by the hypothalamus
-small gland located in the sphenoid bone
-attached to the hypothalamus(link to the nervous system) by a stalk called the infundibulum
-has 2 distinct lobes: the anterior lobe and the posterior lobe

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Anterior Pituitary(Adenohypophysis)

1)Growth hormone GH(Somatotropin)
2)Thyroid Stimulating hormone(TSH)
3)Adrenocorticotropic hormone(ACTH)
4)Prolactin-Lactogenic Hormone-PRL
5)Follicle Stimulating Hormone-FSH-Gonaotropic Hormone
6)Luteinizing Hormone-LH-Gonadotropic Hormone

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1)Growth Hormone- Somatotropin(STH)

-part of Anterior Pituitary(Adenohypophysis)
-acts on most body tissues
-causes growth in height prior to closure of the epiphyseal disc
-has a major role in metabolism
-stimulates protein synthesis
-it is needed for tissue repair
-overproduction=gigantism or acromegaly
-underproduction=dwarfism

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2)Thyroid Stimulating Hormone(TSH)

-part of Anterior Pituitary(Adenohypophysis)-target tissue:Thyroid gland
-effect secretion of thyroid hormones

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3)Adrenocorticotropic Hormone(ACTH)

-part of Anterior Pituitary(Adenohypophysis)-target tissue: adrenal cortex
-effect: secretion of hormones from the adrenal cortex

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4)Prolactin-Lactogenic Hormone-(PRL)

-part of Anterior Pituitary(Adenohypophysis)target organ: mammary glands
effect: milk production post partum

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5)Follicle Stimulating Hormone-FSH-Gonadotropic Hormone

-part of Anterior Pituitary(Adenohypophysis)target organ: ovaries/testes
effect: development of ova/sperm cells

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6)Luteinizing Hormone-LH-Gonadotropic Hormone

-part of Anterior Pituitary(Adenohypophysis)target organ: ovaries
effect: regulation of ovulation and menstruation, ovulation and development of the corpus lutem

LH(interstitial cell stimulating hormone)
-target organ: testes
-effect:testosterone secretion

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Posterior Lobe of the pituitary(Neuro Hypophysis)

1)Antidiuretic Hormone(ADH)(Vasopressin)
2)Oxytocin

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Antidiuretic Hormone(ADH)(Vasopressin)

-part ofPosterior Lobe of the pituitary(Neuro Hypophysis)
-target organ: kidneys
-effect: reabsorption of water by the kidney tubules from the forming urine
-high concentration cause vasoconstriction
-hyposecretion: diabestes insipidus
-hypersecretion:SIADH

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Oxytocin

-part ofPosterior Lobe of the pituitary(Neuro Hypophysis)
-target organ: uterus and breast
-effect: uterine contraction and milk ejection

-oxytocin production is controlled by a positive feedback loop

19

Thyroid Gland

-located in the neck just under the larynx
-it has two lobes(butterfly)
-hormones produced
1)Thyroxine T4
2)Triodothyronine T3
3)Calcitonin

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Thyroxine(T4) an Triiodothyronine(T3)

-increase rate of protein/fat/glucose metabolism
-regulate BMR
-iodine is necessary for making T3 and T4
-increase body temp
-essential for physical growth and development
-essential for reproductive maturity
-essential for mental development(normal growth in function of CNS)

21

Calcitonin

-increase activity of osteoblasts
-decrease the reabsorption of calcium and phosphorus from the bone
-decrease blood calcium concentration

22

Disorder of the thyroid gland

Cretinism- hypothyroidism- infants and children, severe physical /mental retardation

-Hypothyroid/goiter/myxedema in adults

-Hyperthyroidism=Graves Disease(increase metabolic rate/tachycardia)

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Cretinism(Hypothyroidism)

-in infants in children
-severe physical and mental retardation

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Myxedema(Hypothyroidism)

-in adults
-hypothyroid lead to goiter

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Graves Disease(Hyperthyroidism)

-increased metabolic rate, tachycardia

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Parathyroid Gland

-four peasized glands located on the back of thyroid

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Parathyroid Hormone(PTH)

-antagonist of calcitonin
-increases blood calcium concentration
-promoting the activity of osteoclast(bone resorption)
-increasing absorption of calcium from food
-decreased calcium excretion by the kidneys

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Adrenal Glands-Suprarenal Glands

-pyramid shaped glands located one on top of each kidney(suprarenal)
-they have 2 parts each the medulla(inside), the cortex(outside)

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Medulla

-hormonal secretion (Catecholamines) are produced in response to sympathetic impulse from the nervous system(hypothalamus)

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Nor-Epinephrine/Epinephrine

-increases rate and force of cardiac contractions
-dilates the bronchi
-decrease in peristalsis
-promotes conversion of glycogen to glucose
in the liver
-high and dry
-increase cellular respiration
-increase use of fat for energy
-vasodilation in skeletal mucles
-vasoconstriction in skin and visceral organs

31

Adrenal Cortex

secretes three types of steroid hormones
1)Glucorticoids(Cortisol)
2)Mineralcorticoids(Aldosterone)
3)Sex Hormones(Androgen&Estrogen)

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Glucorticoids(Cortisol)

STERIOD HORMONE SECRETED BY THE ADRENAL CORTEX
-secreted by the body under stress whether physiological/psychological stress
-decreases bone reformation\
-increase the use of fat and amino acids for energy
-raise blood glucose level
-increase the blood levels of fatty acid and amino acid
-anti-inflammatory-2nd line of defense-effects would healing/immunity
-increase stomach acid production

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MIneralcorticoids(Aldosterone)

STERIOD HORMONE SECRETED BY THE ADRENAL CORTEX
-target organ kidney
-increase reabsorbion of Na in the kidney tubules(water follows sodium)
-promotes excretion of K
-important for fluid and electrolyte ph balance
-renin-angiotension-aldosterone

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Sex Hormone

STERIOD HORMONE SECRETED BY THE ADRENAL CORTEX
-androgen for males
-estrogen for females

35

Addisons Disease

Disorder of the Adrenal Cortex
-hyposecretion of hormones of the adrenal cortex
-Aldosterone-hypersecretion of Na.K retention,severe dehydration,low blood volume,low bp

36

Cushing Syndrome

-Disorder of the adrenal cortex
-hypersecretion of hormones of the adrenal cortex
-cortisol-hyperglycemia fat deposition in the trunk,moon face,buffalo hump,fragile skin,fragile bone,muscle weakness

37

Pancreas-Islets of Langerhan

--pancreas is both an exocrine gland and an endocrine gland
-endocrine function of the pancreas take place in islets of langerhan
-2 types of cells:
Alpha cells: make glucagon
Beta cells: make insulin

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Alpha cells

make glucagon

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Beta cells

make insulin

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Insulin

-facilitate the diffusion of glucose across the cell membrane
-lowers blood glucose level
-helps to ensure the cells have glucose to metabolize for energy
-increases glucose uptake by the liver and conversion of glucose to glycogen
-important for fat synthesis
-anabolic(build up)

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Glucagon

-causes liver to convert glucogen to glucose
-increases blood glucose levels
-increases the rate of conversion of amino acids to glucose

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Diabetes type 1(\disease of secretion)

-no insulin secretion or insufficient insulin secretion, can cause hyperglycemia

43

Diabetes type 2(disease of response)

-response of the cells to insulin diminshes
-marked by hyperglycemia

44

effects of chronic hypergycemia

-macrovascular damage: large blood vessel damage do not transport oxygen and nutrients to feet leading to diabeteic foot ulcer
-microvascular damage: small blood vessels damage leading to nephropathy,retinapathy,neuropathy

45

diabetes

polyphagia(eat) excessive
polydispia(thirst)
polyurea(urine)

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Testes

sex gland(gonad)
-located in the scrotal sac
-intestitial cells produce testosterone
-fsh stimulates the testes to produce mature sperm

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testosterone

-promote maturation of sperm cells
-development of secondary sex characteristics

48

ovaries

-located in pelvic cavity
-produce estrogen and progesterone

49

fsh

development of ovum

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LH

ovulation hormone

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Estrogen

-helps with maturation of the ovum
-growth of the endometrium in preparation of possible implantaion
-development of seconday characteristics
-lowers level of cholesterol and triglceride levels
-reduce risk of artherscolrosis(corondary heart disease) in pre menopausable women,

52

Progesterone

-promotes growth of the endometrium
-promotes storage of glycogen in the liver
-enlargement of mammary glands

53

Pineal Gland

-located in the diencephalon
-very sensitive to light conditions
-secretes melatonin which stimulates the onset of sleep an increases its duration(melatonin secretion follows a daily cycle more is produced in darkness
-serotonin which helps with regulation of mood more is produced in light

54

Thymus gland

-located in the neck inferior to the thyroid gland
-large in the fetus and children(shrinks with age)
-secretes thymosin which promotes proliferation and maturation of T lymphocytes

55

kidneys

-located in the abdominal cavitity
-renin-produced in response to low Bp
-part of the renin angiotention-aldosterone mechanism
-erythropoietin: produced in response to tissue hypoxia, promotes erythropoesis

56

placenta

-temporary secretory organ
-secretes hormone(estrogen and progesterone which maintain the pregnancy

57

prostaglandins

-local tissue hormones
-produced by most tissue and exert local effects
-they are many different types of prostaglandins
-invovled in: inflammation,vasocontriction,reproduction,blood clotting,pain,vasodilation,uterine contractions