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Flashcards in Endocrine system & disorders Deck (31):
1

Functions of the hypothalamus

HEAL:
Homeostatic
Endocrine
Autonomic control
Limbic

2

Suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus

"master clock" for circadian rhythms; receives input from retinal ganglion cells conveying info about day-night cycles

3

Ventral lateral preoptic area of the hypothalamus

Releases GABA that inhibits histaminergic neurons in tuberomamillary nucleus for nonREM sleep

4

Lateral hypothalamic area

Important in increasing appetite; lesions cause a decrease in body weight

5

Medial hypothalamus

Important in inhibiting appetite; lesions can cause obesity

6

Anterior hypothalamus

Thurst; detects increased body temp & activates mechanisms of heat dissipation; lesions can cause hyperthermia

7

Posterior hypothalamus

Functions to conserve heat

8

Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

Stimulates adrenal cortex to produce corticosteroid hormones important for maintaining BP, controlling electrolyte balance, & promoting glucose mobilization into blood stream

9

Cushing's disease

Associated with increased adrenocortical secretion of cortisol

Can see memory loss, emotional lability, depression, somatic delusions

10

Addison's disease is caused by

Decreased cortisol

11

Growth hormone abnormalities can cause

Dwarfism or gigantism in children, acromegaly in adults

12

Thyroid gland hormones affect what 3 fundamental processes?

cellular differentiation, growth, metabolism

13

Cortex of the adrenal glands

Secretes corticosteroids, anti-inflammatory, suppresses immune system, known to raise BP

14

Medulla of the adrenal glands

Secretes epinephrine & other similar hormones, responds to stressors

15

What gland secretes melatonin?

Pineal gland

16

Type I diabetes mellitus (IDDM)

Pts develop little or no insulin
Diagnosed < age 30

17

Type II diabetes (NIDDM)

Pancreas continues to manufacture insulin, sometimes at higher levels, but body develops resistance to its effects, resulting in insulin deficiency

18

Other causes of diabetes include

High level of corticosteroids, pregnancy, drugs, poisons that interfere w/ production/effects of insulin

19

Medial symptoms of diabetes

Polyuria & polydipsia, polyphagia (loss of calories through urination cause weight loss, body needs to compensate), blurred vision, drowsiness, nausea, decreased endurance, diabetic ketoacidosis

20

End stage renal disease

Condition involving irreversible failure of excretory & regulatory functions of the kidneys

21

Stages of renal disease

Diminished renal reserve - measurable loss of renal function is noted; homeostasis is preserved at the expense of some hormonal adaptation

Renal insufficiency - slight retention of nitrogenous compounds

Uremia - accumulation in blood of constituents normally eliminated in urine that produces a severe toxic condition

22

Effects of uremia on cognition

Attention, psychomotor speed, immediate recall, mental flexibility

23

Most common causes of renal failure

DM, HTN, chronic glomerulonephritis, chronic pyelonephritis, polycystic kidney disease

24

Early symptoms of renal failure

Fatigue, drowsiness, apathy, lethargy, social withdrawal, personality changes, decreased concentration, diminished attention span

25

Progressed neuropsychological symptoms of end stage renal disease

Confusion, poor concentration, decreased mental alertness, fatigability, intellectual impairment, impaired memory, sensory perception deficits, diminished perceptual-motor coordination

26

Neurocognitive effects of hyperthyroidism

Slower reaction time, impaired motor tasks (likely due to fatigue), mild deficits in attention, memory, complex problem solving

27

Affective features of hyperthyroidism

Emotional instability/lability, general hyperactivity, irritability, easy fatigability, heat intolerance, feelings of apprehension, restlessness, inability to concentrate

28

Cognitive effects of hypothyroidism

Sluggish, lethargic, concentration & memory problems, effects on motor speed, visuomotor processing, visuospatial & visuoconstructional deficits

29

Affective features of hypothyroidism

Symptoms of depression, emotional lability, mental sluggishness, indifference, self-accusatory ruminations, suspiciousness

30

Pituitary apoplexy

Results from spontaneous hemorrhage from pituitary tumors; sudden HA, meningeal signs, unilateral or bilateral cavernous sinus syndrome, visual loss, hypotension, depressed LOC

31

Pituitary adenoma

Slow-growing histologically benign tumor arising from cells in the anterior pituitary