Endocrine System + B11 Flashcards Preview

Maciej Biology Maciej > Endocrine System + B11 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Endocrine System + B11 Deck (18):
1

What is the endocrine system ?

A composition of different glands which secrete chemical messengers called hormones to their target organs (via the blood stream) to initiate a response.

2

What is the pancreas and what does it do ?

The pancreas is a gland that detects, monitors and controls blood glucose levels. It releases insulin and glucagon

3

Why does the liver store glucose as glycogen ?

Glycogen is insoluble and therefore cannot effect the water potential of cells and cause them to swell or burst. Glucose is soluble

4

When is insulin released ?

insulin is relseased into the blood stream when blood-glucose levels are too high. It travels to the liver causing it to take in excess glucose as glycogen

5

When is Glucagon released ?

Glucagon is released into the blood stream when blood-glucose levels are too low. It travels to the liver and causes it to convert the stored glycogen into glucose and release it into the blood stream

6

What is type 1 diabetes

Type 1 diabetes is a disorder in which the pancreas creates little or no insulin. It is commonly inherited and currently has no cure

7

What is type 2 diabetes ?

Type 2 diabetes is a disorder in which the pancreas creates little or no insulin, it is primarily caused by unhealthy lifestyle decisions and is developed over the course of a persons lifetime

8

What role do hormones play during puberty ?

Hormones are responsible for developing secondary characteristics in males and females.

9

What hormones triggers puberty in females and what secretes them ?

Ovaries secrete oestrogen which triggers puberty

10

What hormones triggers puberty in males and what secretes them ?

Testes produce testosterone which triggers puberty

11

Where is the Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) secreted and what does it do ?

-Secreted by the Pituitary gland
-Causes the egg to mature in the ovary
-Stimulates ovaries,to release the hormone oestrogen

12

Where is the Oestrogen hormone secreted and what does it do ?

-Secreted in the ovaries
-Stimulates the lining of the uterus to grow after menstruation
-Inhibits release of FSH so only one egg matures at a time
-Stimulates pituitary gland to release LH

13

Where is the Luteinising Hormone (LH) hormone secreted and what does it do ?

-Secreted in the Pituitary gland
-Stimulates the release of a mature egg from the ovary
-Levels of the luteinising hormone drop after ovulation

14

Where is the Progesterone hormone secreted and what does it do ?

-Secreted in the ovaries
-Maintains lining of the uterus during pregnancy and second half of menstural cycle
-Inhibits release of both FSH and LH

15

What is negative feedback ?

The reaction to a change in the internal environment e.g. factor in internal environment increases/decreases, changes take place to restore factor to original level

16

Where is the Thyroid gland located and what is it responsible for ?

Located in the neck:
-Uses iodine from diet to produce the hormone thyroxine which controls basal metabolic rate of our bodies:
--How quickly substances are broken down and built up -- How much oxygen tissues use --How the brain of a growing child develops

17

How does the pituitary gland and thyroid gland work together to keep thyroxine levels normal, what controls this?

-If thyroxine levels rise, TSH levels fall so thyroxine levels return to normal
-Thyroxine levels fall, TSH levels rise so thyroxine levels return to normal
-this is controlled by negative feedback

18

What is adrenaline ? How does it affect your body and when and where from is it secreted ?

-Adrenaline is a hormone excreted when we become stressed, angry, excited or frightened
-Secreted from adrenal gland located at the top of our kidneys
-Adrenaline Causes: --Increased hear and breathing rate --Glycogen to be converted to glucose --Pupils to dilate and let in more light --Increased mental awareness --Blood diverted away from digestive system and to the muscles of limbs