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Flashcards in Endocrine System + B11 Deck (24):
1

What is the endocrine system ?

A composition of different glands which secrete chemical messengers called hormones to their target organs (via the blood stream) to initiate a response.

2

What is the pancreas and what does it do ?

The pancreas is a gland that detects, monitors and controls blood glucose levels. It releases insulin and glucagon

3

Why does the liver store glucose as glycogen ?

Glycogen is insoluble and therefore cannot effect the water potential of cells and cause them to swell or burst. Glucose is soluble

4

When is insulin released ?

insulin is relseased into the blood stream when blood-glucose levels are too high. It travels to the liver causing it to take in excess glucose as glycogen

5

When is Glucagon released ?

Glucagon is released into the blood stream when blood-glucose levels are too low. It travels to the liver and causes it to convert the stored glycogen into glucose and release it into the blood stream

6

What is type 1 diabetes

Type 1 diabetes is a disorder in which the pancreas creates little or no insulin. It is commonly inherited and currently has no cure

7

What is type 2 diabetes ?

Type 2 diabetes is a disorder in which the pancreas creates little or no insulin, it is primarily caused by unhealthy lifestyle decisions and is developed over the course of a persons lifetime

8

What role do hormones play during puberty ?

Hormones are responsible for developing secondary characteristics in males and females.

9

What hormones triggers puberty in females and what secretes them ?

Ovaries secrete oestrogen which triggers puberty

10

What hormones triggers puberty in males and what secretes them ?

Testes produce testosterone which triggers puberty

11

Where is the Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) secreted and what does it do ?

-Secreted by the Pituitary gland
-Causes the egg to mature in the ovary
-Stimulates ovaries,to release the hormone oestrogen

12

Where is the Oestrogen hormone secreted and what does it do ?

-Secreted in the ovaries
-Stimulates the lining of the uterus to grow after menstruation
-Inhibits release of FSH so only one egg matures at a time
-Stimulates pituitary gland to release LH

13

Where is the Luteinising Hormone (LH) hormone secreted and what does it do ?

-Secreted in the Pituitary gland
-Stimulates the release of a mature egg from the ovary
-Levels of the luteinising hormone drop after ovulation

14

Where is the Progesterone hormone secreted and what does it do ?

-Secreted in the ovaries
-Maintains lining of the uterus during pregnancy and second half of menstural cycle
-Inhibits release of both FSH and LH

15

What is negative feedback ?

The reaction to a change in the internal environment e.g. factor in internal environment increases/decreases, changes take place to restore factor to original level

16

Where is the Thyroid gland located and what is it responsible for ?

Located in the neck:
-Uses iodine from diet to produce the hormone thyroxine which controls basal metabolic rate of our bodies:
--How quickly substances are broken down and built up -- How much oxygen tissues use --How the brain of a growing child develops

17

How does the pituitary gland and thyroid gland work together to keep thyroxine levels normal, what controls this?

-If thyroxine levels rise, TSH levels fall so thyroxine levels return to normal
-Thyroxine levels fall, TSH levels rise so thyroxine levels return to normal
-this is controlled by negative feedback

18

What is adrenaline ? How does it affect your body and when and where from is it secreted ?

-Adrenaline is a hormone excreted when we become stressed, angry, excited or frightened
-Secreted from adrenal gland located at the top of our kidneys
-Adrenaline Causes: --Increased heart and breathing rate --Glycogen to be converted to glucose --Pupils to dilate and let in more light --Increased mental awareness --Blood diverted away from digestive system and to the muscles of limbs

19

how does IVF treatment work ?

-A mother is given FSH and LH to stimulate the release of multiple eggs
-The eggs are collected from the mother and fertilised by sperm from the father in the laboratory
-The fertilised eggs develop into embryos
-At the stage when they are tiny balls of cells, one or two embryos are inserted into the mother's uterus

20

What are some downsides of fertility treatment ?

-Emotionally and physically stressful
-Success rate are not high
-Can lead to multiple births which is a risk to the offspring and mother

21

What are some non-hormonal methods of contraception and how do they work ?

Barrier Methods:
-condoms
Intrauterine devices:
-Prevent the implantation of an embryo or release of a hormone
Surgical methods:
-Vasectomy
Abstaining from sexual intercourse

22

What are some hormonal methods of contraception and how do they work ?

Oral Contraceptives:
-Oestrogen pill that inhibits FSH
Injections, Implants and skin patch:
-Slow release of progesterone to inhibit the maturation and release of eggs for a number of months or years

23

What hormonal methods are there for fertility treatment ?

IVF: (In Vitro Fertilisation)
-Mother is given FSH and LH to stimulate the release of several eggs
-eggs are collected from the mother and fertilised by sperm of the father in laboratory
-eggs develop into embryo
-one or two embryos are inserted into mothers womb

24

What are some drawbacks of IVF treatment ?

-emotionally and physically stressful
-low success rates
-expensive
-can lead to multiple births which increases risk to baby and mother