Endocrine System Study Guide Flashcards Preview

Anatomy & Physiology > Endocrine System Study Guide > Flashcards

Flashcards in Endocrine System Study Guide Deck (51):
1

What are the 4 types of cell to cell communication?

1. Gap Junctions - pores
2. Neurotransmitters-neurons
3. Paracrine - local hormones
4. Hormones

2

Main differences between Endocrine and exocrine glands?

Endo: no ducts - to bloodstream
Exo: have ducts w/product to specific area (skin etc.
*some organs have both endo and exo

3

Where are ADH (antidiuretic hormone) and OTH (oxytocin) made?

Posterior Pituitary

4

What is the cause of Diabetes Insipidus?

Too little ADH (antidiuretic hormone)

5

What is the cause of type 1 Diabetes Mellitus?

No insulin production caused by disruption of carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism from hyposecretion of insulin

6

What is the cause of type 2 Diabetes Mellitus?

Insulin resistant

7

Cause of gestational diabetes?

Caused during pregnancy

8

What type of feedback controls oxytocin release during labor?

Positive feedback

9

What hormones pass through the hypophyseal portal?
Hypothalamic Releasing & Inhibiting Hormones
Regulate Anterior Pituitary

1. Gonadotropin (GnRH) - Promotes FSH & LH
2. Growth (GHRH) - Promotes GH
3. Corticotropin (CRH) - Promotes ACTH
4. Thyrotropin (TRH) - Promotes TSH & PRL
5. Prolactin Inhibiting (PIH) - Inhibit PRL
6. Somatostatin (growth hormone) - Inhibit GH & TSH

10

What is the target of Gonadotropin (GnRH)?

Anterior Pituitary

11

What is the target of Growth hormone (GHRH)?

Liver

12

Target of Corticotropin (CRH)?

Anterior Pituitary

13

Target of Prolactin Inhibiting (PIH)?

Anterior PItuitary

14

Target of Thyrotropin (TRH)?

Anterior PItuitary

15

Target of Somatostatin?

anterior pituitary

16

What is endemic Goiter caused by?

lack of iodine

17

What is Graves disease (toxic goiter) caused by?

autoimmune-too much hormone T3 and T4

18

What does hypersecretion mean?

too much hormone

19

What does hyposecretion mean?

too little hormone

20

What does synergistic mean?

work together for greater effect
ex: FSH and testosterone on sperm production

21

What does permissive mean?

one hormone enhances the response of another hormone
ex: estrogen prepares uterus for action of progesterone

22

What does antagonistic mean?

one hormone opposes the action of another
ex: insulin lowers blood glucose and glycogen raises it

23

What are the endocrine disorders we discussed?

1. diabetes insipidus
2. toxic goiter (graves disease)

24

What causes Pheochromocytoma?

too much epinephrine

25

What causes Toxic goiter/graves disease?

too much T3 and T4

26

What causes Acromegaly?

hypersecretion of GH in adults

27

What causes gigantism?

too much GH in children

28

What causes hyperparathyroidism?

excess PTH secretion-soft, fragile, and deformed bones

29

What causes Cushing Syndrome?

excess Cortisol

30

What causes Diabetes Insipidus?

too little ADH

31

What causes Pituitary dwarfish?

too little GH

32

What causes Congenital Hypothyroidism?

Too little TH

33

What causes Myxedema?

too little TH from birth

34

What causes Endemic goiter?

too little iodine - no TH

35

What causes hypoparathyroidism?

too little PTH-fetal seizures (decline in blood calcium levels)

36

What does the FSH hormone do?

increase gametes

37

How is the effectiveness of a hormone concentration measured?

Metabolic Clearance Rate

38

If cortisol is overused, what can develop?

Cushing syndrome

39

What are the three stages of General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)?

1. alarm reaction
2. stage of resistance
3. stage of exhaustion

40

What types of hormones are Hydrophilic?

Peptides and Catecholamines - travel with blood plasma

41

Which adrenal hormone is a glucocorticoid?

Cortisol

42

Which adrenal hormone is a mineralcorticoid?

Aldosterone

43

Which adrenal hormone is are sex steroids?

androgens

44

What hormones are hydrophobic?

Steroids and Thryoid hormones - bind to transport proteins

45

Compare Nervous and Endocrine System?

Both internal communication
nervous: both electrical and chemical
Endocrine: only chemical

Speed of Response
Nervous reacts quick
Endocrine reacts slow

46

What is the correct pathway of Oxytocin (OT) from hypothalamus to hypophysis?

OT: paraventricular nuclei to hypothalamo-hypophyseal tract to posterior pituitary.

47

What part of the pituitary is an outgrowth from the pharynx in the embryo?

Anterior Pituitary (Adenohypophysis)

48

What part of the pituitary is nervous tissue?

Posterior Pituitary (Neuropophysis)

49

What is the correct pathway of ADH from the hypothalamus to hypophysis?

ADH: supra optic nuclei to hypothalamo hypophyseal tract to posterior pituitary.

50

What is the correct pathway of PRL from Hypothalamus to hyposphysis?

TRH through the hypophyseal portal to anterior pituitary which releases PRL

51

What is the difference of how SAID and NSAIDS differ in the ability to block pain?

SAID blocks the lipoxygenase enzyme
NSAIDS block the cycoloxygenase enzyme.