Flashcards in Endocrine System Study Guide Deck (51):
What are the 4 types of cell to cell communication?
1. Gap Junctions - pores
3. Paracrine - local hormones
Main differences between Endocrine and exocrine glands?
Endo: no ducts - to bloodstream
Exo: have ducts w/product to specific area (skin etc.
*some organs have both endo and exo
Where are ADH (antidiuretic hormone) and OTH (oxytocin) made?
What is the cause of Diabetes Insipidus?
Too little ADH (antidiuretic hormone)
What is the cause of type 1 Diabetes Mellitus?
No insulin production caused by disruption of carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism from hyposecretion of insulin
What is the cause of type 2 Diabetes Mellitus?
Cause of gestational diabetes?
Caused during pregnancy
What type of feedback controls oxytocin release during labor?
What hormones pass through the hypophyseal portal?
Hypothalamic Releasing & Inhibiting Hormones
Regulate Anterior Pituitary
1. Gonadotropin (GnRH) - Promotes FSH & LH
2. Growth (GHRH) - Promotes GH
3. Corticotropin (CRH) - Promotes ACTH
4. Thyrotropin (TRH) - Promotes TSH & PRL
5. Prolactin Inhibiting (PIH) - Inhibit PRL
6. Somatostatin (growth hormone) - Inhibit GH & TSH
What is the target of Gonadotropin (GnRH)?
What is the target of Growth hormone (GHRH)?
Target of Corticotropin (CRH)?
Target of Prolactin Inhibiting (PIH)?
Target of Thyrotropin (TRH)?
Target of Somatostatin?
What is endemic Goiter caused by?
lack of iodine
What is Graves disease (toxic goiter) caused by?
autoimmune-too much hormone T3 and T4
What does hypersecretion mean?
too much hormone
What does hyposecretion mean?
too little hormone
What does synergistic mean?
work together for greater effect
ex: FSH and testosterone on sperm production
What does permissive mean?
one hormone enhances the response of another hormone
ex: estrogen prepares uterus for action of progesterone
What does antagonistic mean?
one hormone opposes the action of another
ex: insulin lowers blood glucose and glycogen raises it
What are the endocrine disorders we discussed?
1. diabetes insipidus
2. toxic goiter (graves disease)
What causes Pheochromocytoma?
too much epinephrine
What causes Toxic goiter/graves disease?
too much T3 and T4
What causes Acromegaly?
hypersecretion of GH in adults
What causes gigantism?
too much GH in children
What causes hyperparathyroidism?
excess PTH secretion-soft, fragile, and deformed bones
What causes Cushing Syndrome?
What causes Diabetes Insipidus?
too little ADH
What causes Pituitary dwarfish?
too little GH
What causes Congenital Hypothyroidism?
Too little TH
What causes Myxedema?
too little TH from birth
What causes Endemic goiter?
too little iodine - no TH
What causes hypoparathyroidism?
too little PTH-fetal seizures (decline in blood calcium levels)
What does the FSH hormone do?
How is the effectiveness of a hormone concentration measured?
Metabolic Clearance Rate
If cortisol is overused, what can develop?
What are the three stages of General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)?
1. alarm reaction
2. stage of resistance
3. stage of exhaustion
What types of hormones are Hydrophilic?
Peptides and Catecholamines - travel with blood plasma
Which adrenal hormone is a glucocorticoid?
Which adrenal hormone is a mineralcorticoid?
Which adrenal hormone is are sex steroids?
What hormones are hydrophobic?
Steroids and Thryoid hormones - bind to transport proteins
Compare Nervous and Endocrine System?
Both internal communication
nervous: both electrical and chemical
Endocrine: only chemical
Speed of Response
Nervous reacts quick
Endocrine reacts slow
What is the correct pathway of Oxytocin (OT) from hypothalamus to hypophysis?
OT: paraventricular nuclei to hypothalamo-hypophyseal tract to posterior pituitary.
What part of the pituitary is an outgrowth from the pharynx in the embryo?
Anterior Pituitary (Adenohypophysis)
What part of the pituitary is nervous tissue?
Posterior Pituitary (Neuropophysis)
What is the correct pathway of ADH from the hypothalamus to hypophysis?
ADH: supra optic nuclei to hypothalamo hypophyseal tract to posterior pituitary.
What is the correct pathway of PRL from Hypothalamus to hyposphysis?
TRH through the hypophyseal portal to anterior pituitary which releases PRL