Flashcards in Endometrial Pathology Deck (30)
This is the most common type of gynecologic malignancy.
75-80% of endometrial cancer happens in __ women.
Associated risk factors for endometrial carcinoma include...
1. obesity/anovulatory cycles
2. postmenopausal (esp on HRT)
3. hx of atypical hyperplasia
4. hx of tamoxifen therapy
5. family hx of uterine cancer
This is the first indication of that endometrial cancer has spread.
Without treatment, endometrial cancer will spread to...
the cervix, adnexa, tubes, and ovaries.
Distant mets may occur if the pelvic __ is infiltrated.
What are three clinical signs of endometrial cancer?
1. postmenopausal vaginal bleeding
2. menopausal hypermenorrhea
3. uterine distention pain
Sonographically, endometrial cancer appears an increased uterine __, alteration in uterine __ ,__ in the endometrial cavity, and a __ endometrial stripe.
size, parenchyma, fluid, thick heterogeneous
This is a proliferation of endometrial glandular tissue.
T/F? Endometrial hyperplasia is not invasive.
T/F? Endometrial hyperplasia involves the entire endometrium.
Not necessarily. It can be diffuse or focal.
T/F? Endometrial hyperplasia is a precursor to cancer.
true, about 25%
This is a common cause of abnormal uterine bleeding.
Endometrial hyperplasia may be caused by...
1. unopposed estrogen therapy
2. anovulatory cycles
5. granulosa cell & thecoma tumors
Ideally, when should the ultrasound to examine a possible hyperplasia case be?
at the beginning of a hormone cycle (immediately post-menstrual)
How can we tell endometrial carcinoma from hyperplasia?
Sonographically, endometrial hyperplasia has __ borders with a __ texture.
smoother, homogeneous but possibly cystic
How large do we expect the endometrial cavity to be in a premenopausal woman with hyperplasia?
greater than 14 mm
How large do we expect the endometrial cavity to be in a postmenopausal woman with hyperplasia?
greater than 5 mm
How large do we expect the endometrial cavity to be in a premenopausal woman on estrogen with hyperplasia?
up to 8 mm
This is a localized overgrowth of endometrial tissue.
What imaging technique is ideal for demonstrating endometrial polyp size and location?
Clinical signs for a endometrial polyp?
2. abnormal uterine bleeding
3. occasionally postmenopausal bleeding
T/F? Endometrial polyps are usually symptomatic.
T/F? Endometrial polyps are usually discovered during a D&C.
Sonographically, endometrial polyps appear as a mass that is __ and might have a __.
discrete, focal, round, echogenic; vascular stalk
T/F? Endometrial polyps may be indistinguishable from hyperplasia.
Sonohysterography is also known as...
SIS (saline infused...) or hysterosonography
This is a real time ultrasound during the injection of sterile saline into the uterine cavity.