Endometrial Pathology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Endometrial Pathology Deck (30)
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1

This is the most common type of gynecologic malignancy.

endometrial carcinoma

2

75-80% of endometrial cancer happens in __ women.

postmenopausal

3

Associated risk factors for endometrial carcinoma include...

1. obesity/anovulatory cycles
2. postmenopausal (esp on HRT)
3. hx of atypical hyperplasia
4. hx of tamoxifen therapy
5. family hx of uterine cancer

4

This is the first indication of that endometrial cancer has spread.

myometrial invasion

5

Without treatment, endometrial cancer will spread to...

the cervix, adnexa, tubes, and ovaries.

6

Distant mets may occur if the pelvic __ is infiltrated.

lymphatic system

7

What are three clinical signs of endometrial cancer?

1. postmenopausal vaginal bleeding
2. menopausal hypermenorrhea
3. uterine distention pain

8

Sonographically, endometrial cancer appears an increased uterine __, alteration in uterine __ ,__ in the endometrial cavity, and a __ endometrial stripe.

size, parenchyma, fluid, thick heterogeneous

9

This is a proliferation of endometrial glandular tissue.

endometrial hyperplasia

10

T/F? Endometrial hyperplasia is not invasive.

true

11

T/F? Endometrial hyperplasia involves the entire endometrium.

Not necessarily. It can be diffuse or focal.

12

T/F? Endometrial hyperplasia is a precursor to cancer.

true, about 25%

13

This is a common cause of abnormal uterine bleeding.

endometrial hyperplasia

14

Endometrial hyperplasia may be caused by...

1. unopposed estrogen therapy
2. anovulatory cycles
3. PCOS
4. Obesity
5. granulosa cell & thecoma tumors

15

Ideally, when should the ultrasound to examine a possible hyperplasia case be?

at the beginning of a hormone cycle (immediately post-menstrual)

16

How can we tell endometrial carcinoma from hyperplasia?

histologic examination

17

Sonographically, endometrial hyperplasia has __ borders with a __ texture.

smoother, homogeneous but possibly cystic

18

How large do we expect the endometrial cavity to be in a premenopausal woman with hyperplasia?

greater than 14 mm

19

How large do we expect the endometrial cavity to be in a postmenopausal woman with hyperplasia?

greater than 5 mm

20

How large do we expect the endometrial cavity to be in a premenopausal woman on estrogen with hyperplasia?

up to 8 mm

21

This is a localized overgrowth of endometrial tissue.

Endometrial polyps

22

What imaging technique is ideal for demonstrating endometrial polyp size and location?

sonohysterography

23

Clinical signs for a endometrial polyp?

1. infertility
2. abnormal uterine bleeding
3. occasionally postmenopausal bleeding

24

T/F? Endometrial polyps are usually symptomatic.

FALSE, asymptomatic

25

T/F? Endometrial polyps are usually discovered during a D&C.

true

26

Sonographically, endometrial polyps appear as a mass that is __ and might have a __.

discrete, focal, round, echogenic; vascular stalk

27

T/F? Endometrial polyps may be indistinguishable from hyperplasia.

true

28

Sonohysterography is also known as...

SIS (saline infused...) or hysterosonography

29

This is a real time ultrasound during the injection of sterile saline into the uterine cavity.

SIS

30

Indications for SIS...

1. infertility and habitual abortion
2. congenital uterine abnormalities/variations
3. pre- and postoperative eval
4. suspected uterine cavity synechiae