Flashcards in Energy Flow in Global Systems Deck (44):
Refers to the conditions of the temperature, air pressure, cloud cover, precipitation (rain & snow) and humidity in a particular place at a particular time.
The average weather temperatures that occur in a region over a long period of time.
What is the Biosphere?
A thin layer on Earth that has conditions suitable for supporting life as we know it.
What is the Atmosphere?
Layers of gases that surround the Earth.
What is the Troposphere?
Lowest densest layer of atmospheric gases. This is where most weather changes occur and temperature decreases rapidly.
What is the Stratosphere?
Above the troposphere, the second major layer in the Earth's atmosphere. Plane usually fly at this level because weather is most stable. Also consists of ozone.
What is the Ozone?
Absorbs large amounts of energy from the Sun's ray which causes temperatures into increase in the Stratosphere.
What is the Mesosphere?
Third atmospheric layer above the Earth's surface.
What is the Thermosphere?
Is the farthest layer from Earth's surface, temperature drops from -100℃ to -1500℃
What is the Lithosphere?
Solid portion of the Earth that floats above the semi - fluid portion of the upper mantle.
What is the Hydrosphere?
Accounts for all the water on Earth.
97% salt water.
3% fresh water
Define radiant energy.
Energy transmitted as electromagnetic waves.
Amount of solar energy received by a region of Earth's surface.
What is the Electromagnetic Spectrum?
Takes all electromagnetic wavelengths and lines them up according to wave length.
What is the Angle of inclination?
Degree by which Earth's poles are tilted from the perpendicular from the plane of its orbit.
What is the Angle of incidence?
Angle between a ray falling on the surface and the line perpendicular to the surface.
One of two points in Earth's orbit when the number of daylight hours is equal to the number of hours of night.
One of the two points in Earth's orbit at which the poles are tilted toward or away from the Sun.
How is Radiation absorbed?
If the particles absorb energy, energy is converted into another form.
How is Radiation reflected?
If the particles reflecting energy, simply change the ray's direction.
What happens as a results of clouds increasing the reflection of radiation ?
As a result the temperature is cooler.
What happens as a results of clouds increasing the absorption of radiation?
Also absorb the energy emitted by the Earth's surface, which helps warm the planet.
What is Atmospheric Dust?
Solid particles less than 0.66 mm in diameter suspended in the Earth's atmosphere.
How can atmospheric dust increase the reflection of radiation?
Shade the Earth's surface from radiation
How can atmospheric increase the absorption of radiation?
Absorbs incoming energy and some energy emitted by the Earth.
What is Albedo?
The percent of solar radiation that the Earth reflects.
What is the Natural Greenhouse Effect.
Radiant energy is absorbed by the Earth, and is remitted as inferred radiation. It is necessary because without it Earth's temperature would be 33℃.
What is the Net Radiation Budget?
The difference between the amount of incoming radiation and outgoing radiation from the Earth's surface.
What is incoming Radiation?
All the energy that reaches Earth.
What is outgoing Radiation?
The thermal radiation emitted by the Earth's surface & the atmosphere that is NOT absorbed by green house gases.
Explain Thermal Energy Transfer.
Movement of thermal energy from an area of high temperature to an area of low temperature.
What is Radiation?
Emission of energy as particles or waves.
What is conduction?
The transfer of thermal energy by direct contact between particles of a substance without moving the particles to a new location.
What is convection?
The transfer of thermal energy by the movement of particles from one location to another.
What is Atmospheric Pressure?
The pressure exerted by the mass of air above any point on the Earth's surface.
The movement of cool air from an area of high atmospheric pressure to an area of low atmospheric pressure.
Explain the Coriolis Effect.
The deflection of any object from a straight line caused by the rotation of the Earth.
List the four main greenhouse gases.
Water Vapour, carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide.
What is a carbon source?
Anything that gives off carbon dioxide.
- Burning fossil fuels
- Respiration of living thing
What is a carbon sink?
Any process that removes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.
What are halocarbons and what are they used for?
Man - made chemicals that absorb significant amounts go thermal energy.
What is meant by global warming?
Refers to the observed increase in Earth's average temperature.
What is a biome?
A large geographical area with a particular range of temperature and precipitation levels and plants and animals that have adapted to those climate conditions.