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Flashcards in Energy Matter & Exchange Deck (29):
1

What is energy defined as?

Energy is defined as the capacity to do work which results in heat, to create light or generate electricity.

2

What is potential energy (Ep)?

Potential Energy (Ep) is the energy that is stored. In chemistry it is the energy stored within the bonds of the chemicals. Ep is also referred as the energy due to position.

3

What is kinetic energy (Ek)?

Kinetic Energy (Ek) is energy due to motion. On a molecular level a moving molecule would have kinetic energy.

4

What are we actually measuring by measuring temperature in a substance?

When we are measuring the temperature we are actually measuring the kinetic energy in a substance. If the substance were heated the molecules would move faster, thus increasing the kinetic energy.

5

Temperature

Measure of the average kinetic energy.

6

Give an example of Ep

The most familiar example with Ep is gravitational Ep. The attraction between Earth and the objects close to Earth gives an object Ep. If an object is suspended above the Earth's surface, it has Ep due to the attractive forces. In molecules and atoms this attractive force is called bonding. If the particles are moved farther apart the Ep increases, and the system becomes less stable.

7

What is intermolecular attraction?

The attraction between molecules which appears in solids, liquids & gases

8

What is intramolecular attraction?

The attraction between atoms and ions called bonding

9

What is nuclear binding energy?

The force that holds the nucleus together.

10

What does heating a substance do?

By increasing temperatures we are increasing the average kinetic energy.

11

If a substance is _________ increased kinetic energy will appear as increase vibrational energy.

Solid

12

The temperature of the solid will approach _______ point.

Melting

13

During melting the strong attractive forces between the molecules are overcome by the absorption of ________ energy.

Potential energy

14

What is translational motion?

The movement of the entire molecule from place to place. Translational motion is present in liquids and gases.

15

What is rotational motion?

The movement of a molecule arounds it's centre of mass. Rotational motion is present in liquids and gases but it is NOT present in solids due to their rigid structure.

16

What is vibrational motion?

The movement of atoms within a molecule toward or away from it's centre mass. This type of motion can occur in solids, liquids or gases.

17

What is thermal energy?

Total movement of all the particles in a substance.

18

What is heat?

Transfer of thermal energy.

19

How does heat move?

From hot to cold.

20

If the molecules of a substance change their position, there is a change in _______

Ep

21

If molecules in a substance increase in motion they increase in ________

Ek

22

Delta Position occurs during a ______ _______

Phase Change

23

Heat of Fusion: ΔH𝖿us = Q/n
Bonus: Is it an Exothermic or Endothermic process?

The amount of energy needed to transform one mole of substance from a solid phase (s) into a liquid phase (l).
Endothermic

24

Heat of Vaporization ΔHvap = Q/n
Bonus: Is it an Exothermic or Endothermic process?

The amount of energy needed to transform a liquid (l) into a gas (g).
Exothermic

25

What is the total internal energy of a substance?

Ek + Ep

26

What is Quantity of Thermal Energy?

The amount of thermal energy absorbed or released when the temperature of a specific mass changes by a certain number of degrees.
Q = mcΔT

27

Q = mcΔT
What quantitive value are the components of this formula expressed in?

Q = quantity of thermal energy : J (joules)
m = mass of substance in g (grams)
c = specific heat capacity J/g ℃ (joules per grams by degrees celsius
ΔT = change in temperature ℃ (celsius)
(tf - ti)

28

What is the theoretical heat of fusion for water?

ΔH𝖿us= 4.19kJ/mol

29

What is the theoretical heat of vaporization for water?

ΔHvap = 6.01 kJ/mol