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Flashcards in ENG - PREFINALS Deck (28):
1

Structural Roles of Be [2]

as linking verb
as helping/auxiliary verb

2

Structural Roles of Be
- links nonverbal predicates (nouns, adjectives and certain adverbials) with their subjects
- serves as a carrier for tense and subject-verb agreement


John is in Boston.

As a copula or linking verb

3

Structural Roles of Be
- always occurs in conjunction with another verb
- combines with –ing to make the action denoted by the main verb more limited (progressive aspect)

As an auxiliary or helping verb

4

Why the copula be is different from other verbs

1. most frequent verb in English
2. It may be followed by adjective phrases, noun phrases and adverbial prepositional phrases, making it the most grammatically flexible copular verb.
3. Its syntactic behavior is like an auxiliary verb and has operator function with regard to question formation, negotiation and other constructions. This differs from that of other verbs which require addition of a do auxiliary as the operator if none is present
4. It does not occur in all languages, but all languages have verbs. Many have nothing equivalent to the copula be; speakers of such languages simply express the literal equivalent of sentences.


5

all English verbs have a number, except for the verb __

be

6

Types of copula

perception copulas
state
change of state

7

Types of copula
mental or sensory

perception copulas

8

Types of copula
tend to take participial adjectives

state copula

9

Types of copula
often only one or two adjectives go with a given copula

change of state copula

10

Most of the other copular verbs can be followed only by adjective phrases except for the change-of-state copulas ____ and ___ which can be followed by noun and adjective phrases.

become and turn

11

Fractions and percentages take a ____ verb inflection when modifying a noncount noun and the plural verb inflection when they modify a plural noun; either singular or plural inflection may be used when they modify a collective noun, depending on the speaker’s meaning.

SINGULAR

12

Fractions and percentages take a ____ verb inflection when they modify a plural noun;

PLURAL

13

Fractions and percentages take a ____ verb inflection when they modify a collective noun, depending on the speaker’s meaning.

either singular or plural inflection

14

majority and minority
an abstract or generic meaning that refers to superiority of numbers; reference can be human or nonhuman, but the number is always__

singular

15

majority vs minority
a specific meaning where one or two or more sets has a numerical plurality (majority) or a numerical inferiority (minority)

depends on the meaning

16

majority vs minority
a specific meaning where most (majority) or less than half (minority) of an explicit set of persons is being referred to. Here, Fowler claims the number argument should be ___

plural

17

Arithmetical operations take the __ because they are perceived as reflecting a --- numerical entity on both sides of the equation or equal sign.

singular

18

The quantifiers all (of), a lot of, lots of, and plenty of take ___ verb agreement if the subject head noun is noncount but plural verb agreement if the subject head noun is plural.

singular
A lot of nonsense was published about that incident.

19

The quantifiers all (of), a lot of, lots of, and plenty of take ___ verb agreement if the subject head noun is plural.

plural
A lot of people were present when it happened.

20

Noncount noun subjects take a ____ verb.

singular
ex. The food is good.

21

Subject nouns that are derived from adjectives and describe people take ___ verbs.

plural
ex. The rich are in favor of a tax cut.

22

Clausal subject are ___ even if the nouns referred to are plural.

singular
ex. What we need is more reference books.

23

Gerund (verb + -ing) and infinitive (to + verb) subjects take a ---- verb.

singular

24

With none as subject, use a -- verb.

singular

25

With either or neither as a subject, use a -- verb.

singular
ex. Either was acceptable to me.

26

. With correlative subjects either… or or neither… nor, the verb agrees with the ____

closest subject.
ex. Either Bob or my cousins are going to do it.

27

In _____ the event or state is viewed as some portion of a whole and where there is room for further development or change.

present progressive

28

refers to events that are conceptualized as complete wholes
not presented as allowing further development (in contrast to progressive aspect)

simple aspect

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