Engineering & Society: Ethical Philosophies (Lecture 4) Flashcards Preview

Ethics > Engineering & Society: Ethical Philosophies (Lecture 4) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Engineering & Society: Ethical Philosophies (Lecture 4) Deck (23):
1

what are the fundamental concepts of rights ethics

--human rights are basic
-- respect for rights is obligatory

2

what are types of rights (rights ethics)

liberty & welfare rights

3

what are liberty rights (rights ethics)

-- related primarily to individuals
-- concern mainly with non-interference and property protection

4

what are welfare rights (rights ethics)

-- related primarily to collections of people
-- concern mainly with the members of a community
-- include benefits under law, promises and ideals

5

where do rights come from? (rights ethics)

-- outside sources (god, nature, natural law)
-- inside sources (history, precedent, reason)
-- wrongs (bad experiences & moral thinking)

6

how do rights differ from morals or preferences

--related mainly to gov'ts
-- extend morals and ethics into law
-- "super preferences" superseding minor preferences

7

why are rights important

--restrict the actions of gov't
-- protect minority opinions and safety
-- illuminate society's essential values

8

what are the fundamental concepts of duty ethics

--required duties are actions that agree with basic morals
--emphasis is on what we owe to others
--mirror image of rights (for every right there is a duty_

9

what are the related issues to duty ethics

autonomy, universality & reciprocity

10

what is autonomy (duty ethics)

man determines morality through reason

11

what is universality (duty ethics)

principles apply equally to all people

12

what is reciprocity (duty ethics)

respect others' desires, needs, efforts

13

what is the categorical imperative (duty ethics)

1) act only according to a maxim that can become a universal law
2) treat people as an end rather than as a means

14

what are some examples of duty ethics

10 commandments, code of chivalry and warrior's code, cadet honor code, professional codes

15

what are the fundamental concepts of virtue ethics

-- essential virtues are desirable as traits, attitudes, emotions and motives && guides to moral and ethical conduct
--ideal is to be a virtuous person

16

what are some related issues to virtue ethics

-- Aristotle's "Golden Mean"
-- evolution of virtues
-- present day relevance

17

what are some examples of virtue ethics

religious precepts, boy scout oath

18

what are the fundamental concepts of utilitarianism (consequentialism)

-- only the consequences of an action are ethically relevant
-- actions are a balance of good vs. bad consequences
-- ethical consequences give "the most happiness for the most people"

19

what are some related principles to utilitarianism

-- "do no harm"
-- "promote freedom"

20

what are some cautions to utilitarianism

--unforeseen consequences
--inequitable distribution of happiness
--neglect of societal relations and values in the interest of results
-- actions that are basically wrong, whatever the consequences

21

what are the fundamental concepts of pragmatism

-- context in which facts and values must be balanced
-- analysis: ethical reasoning vs. fixed rules or ideals
-- flexibility in integrating and harmonizing competing values

22

what are some related principles to pragmatism

--guidance in methods of analytical thought
--warning of generalizing from specific cases

23

what is the practical approach to pragmatism

--cases are concrete dilemmas with differing moral/ethical opinions
--emphasizing principles often leads to accentuation of differences
--emphasizing particulars over principles can lead to reconciliation of differences