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Flashcards in Environment and Disease Deck (14):
1

What are the Bradford Hill Considerations of data?

1. strength of association
2. consistency of the observation (reproducibility)
3. specificity to a disease
4. temporality (cause before disease)
5. gradient (dose-response)
6. plausibility (biology)

7. coherence (with natural history of disease)
8. experimentation (with significance)
9. analogy (similar known causes)

2

How can carcinogens in cigarette smoke cause cancer?

- metabolic activation by ‘DNA adduct’
- Direct DNA damage

3

What is an example of a gene mutation found in tobacco-induced cancer?

- P53 mutation*
- LRAS
- PTEN

4

How does smoking increase cardio vascular disease risks?

A. development of atherosclerotic changes
- chronic inflammation
- lipid abnormalities
- endothelial dysfunction

B. induction of hypercoagulable state

5

What are common examples of occupational exposure to chemical and physical agents?

- carbon monoxide
- asbestos
- lead
- UV radiation

6

How does asbestos cause disease?

- direct interaction with cells
- reactive oxygen species – macrophages attempt to digest it
- chronic inflammation

7


What are some asbestos related diseases?

- Asbestosis (fibrosis)
- Mesothelioma
- Adenocarcinoma – massive risk increase with smoking

8


What are some of the consequences of lead poisoning?

a) Acute
- GIT pain (colic)
- demyelination neutopathy (weakness)

b) Chronic
- decreased IQ
- cognitive decline
- renal dysfunction
- anemia
- hypertension

9

What are some gaseous air pollutants and what can they lead to

- ozone
- sulfur dioxide
- nitrogen dioxide

Can lead to:
- production of free radicals
- airway reactivity
- lung inflammation

10

Why can carbon monoxide be a problem?

- Hb has 200x greater affinity for CO than O2
- CNS ischemia

11

What are some of the consequences of UV radiation?

- sunburn
- collagen damage
- carcinoma/melanoma

12

What is hyperthermia and what are the consequences?


Core 41-42 degrees

Consequences:
- confusion
- cardiac and respiratory dysfunction
- vasodilation
- oedema
- clotting
- acidosis
- denaturation of cell proteins

13

What is hypothermia and what are the consequences?

Core 35 degrees

Consequences:
- confusion
- loss of shiver response
- diuresis
- cardiac arrhythmia
- pulmonary oedema

14

What are some examples of physical environmental agents that cause disease?

- burns
- trauma
- electrocution
- ionizing radiation
- nutritional:
a) obesity
b) malnourishment

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