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Flashcards in Environmental Deck (50):
1

Malignancy due to asbestos

Mesothelioma and GI cancers

2

Malignancy due to ingestion of smoked foods rich in nitrosamines

Adenocarcinoma of stomach

3

Malignancy due to arsenic

Squamous cell and basal cell carcinoma of skin

4

Malignancy due to aniline dyes, aromatic amines, B-naphthylinamine

Transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder

5

Malignancy due to aflatoxin

Hepatocellular carcinoma

6

Malignancy due to benzene

Acute leukemia

7

Malignancy due to polyvinyl chloride

Hepatic hemangiosarcoma

8

Malignancy due to thorotrast

Hepatic hemangiosarcoma

9

Malignancy due to diethylstilbestrol (DES)

Clear-cell adenocarcinoma of vagina

10

Neoplasm due to HTLV-1

Adult T cell leukemia or lymphoma

11

Neoplasm due to HPV

Cervical and anal dysplasia and carcinoma
Vulvar carcinoma
Laryngeal papillomas
Oropharyngeal carcinomas

12

Neoplasm due to EBV

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma
Burkitt lymphoma

13

Neoplasm due to HBV

Hepatocellular

14

Neoplasm due to HHV-8

Kaposi sarcoma

15

Neoplasm due to H. Pylori

Adenocarcinoma and B cell lymphoma (MALTomas) of stomach

16

Aberrant p21 protein product is due to mutation in what gene

Ras gene

17

8;14 translocation is seen in

Burkitt lymphoma

18

9;22 translocation is seen in

CML

19

Philadelphia chromosome is seen in _____ patients and carry what fusion gene

CML; bcr-abl fusion gene

20

Aggressive childhood tumor characterized bu N-myc amplification

Neuroblastoma

21

Inactivation of Rb gene is seen in:

Retinoblastoma and osteosarcoma

22

Disease caused by mutation in p53

Li-Fraumeni syndrome


Wide variety of tumors

23

Inactivation of WT-1 and WT-2

Wilm's tumor

24

Most common renal neoplasm of children

Wilms tumor

25

Inactivation of APC

Familial polyposis coli and colon adenocarcinoma

26

Mutation in BRCA 1 causes _____; mutation in BRCA2 causes ______

BRCA-1 breast and ovarian CA
BRCA-2 breast CA only

27

Characterized by cafe-au-lait spots, iris hamartomas, fibrosarcomas

Von recklinghausen neurofibromatosis type 1

28

Mutation in NF1

Von recklinghausen neurofibromatosis type 1

29

Mutation in ret proto oncogene

Multiple endocrine neoplasia type IIa

30

Contidions seen in Multiple endocrine neoplasia type IIa

Medullary thyroid carcinoma
Bilateral pheochromocytomas
Hyperparathyroidism

31

Inherited mutation in one of several DNA repair genes (MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2)

Hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer (HNPCC) or Lynch syndrome


Causes colorectal cancer, endometrial cancer, urothelial, brain, stomach and ovarian CA

32

Colorectal tumors with this syndrome has a predilection for the right colon and preceded by serrated adenomas

Hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer (HNPCC) or Lynch syndrome



APC - preceded by tubular adenomas

33

A variant of HNPCC that involves a propensity for sebaceous tumors of the skin

Muir-Torre syndrome

34

Standard of care for patients who present at an ealy age with colorectal and/or endometrial carcinomas or an extensive family history of these malignancies

HNPCC screening

35

Autosomal recessive disorder that has an increased incidence of skin cancer and involves defects in genes that function in nucleotide excision repair required for thymine dimers repair

Xeroderma pigmentosum



Excessive exposure to sunlight

36

Degree of burns characterized by hyperemia without significant epidermal damage

First degree

37

Degree of burns characterized by blistering and destruction of the epidermis with slight damage to the underlying dermis

Second degree

38

Degree of burns characterized by damage of the epidermis, dermis, and dermal appendages. What is the intervention needed?

Third degree


Skin graft

39

Most common cause of late fatalities in burns

Infection

40

Most frequent organism infecting burn patients

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

41

Ulcerating squamous cell carcinomas that may arise in association with long-standing burn wounds

Marjolin ulcer

42

Premalignant cutaneous lesion that results from excessive sun or UV light exposure

Actinic keratosis

43

Condition that results to combination of alcoholism and thiamine deficiency

Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome


Aka alcoholic encephalopathy

44

4 signs and symptoms of wernicke syndrome

Ataxia
Confusion
Ophthalmoplegia
Nystagmus

45

2 symptoms of korsakoff syndrome

Memory loss and confabulation

46

Valve predilection of infective endocarditis due to IV drug abuse

Right side of the heart

47

Methyl alcohol is converted to these 2 cellular toxins

Formaldehyde
Formic acid

48

Chemical that damages the cells of the retina, optic nerve and CNS leading to blindness

Methyl alcohol or methanol

49

Substance that causes foci of neuronal necrosis in the basal ganglia, lenticular nuclei, and cortical gray areas and causes cherry-red color of skin, blood, viscera, and muscles

CO poisoning

50

Chemical that causes centrilular necrosis and fatty change in the liver

Carbon tetrachloride