Environmental and Nutritional Diseases II Flashcards Preview

PBD II Exam 1 > Environmental and Nutritional Diseases II > Flashcards

Flashcards in Environmental and Nutritional Diseases II Deck (47):
1

hepatocellular carcinoma

carbon tetrachloride
-from dry cleaning

2

angiosarcomas of liver

vinyl chloride
-plastic manufacturing

3

phthalates

affect young children

4

polycyclic hydrocarbons

among most potent carcinogens

5

DDT

organochloride

-endocrine disruptors

-helpful in killing mosquitos with malaria

6

benzene exposure

leukemias and lymphomas

7

heart disease

CO
lead
solvents
cobalt
cadmium

8

nasal cancer

isopropyl alcohol, wood dust

9

lung cancer

radon, asbestos, silica, bix, nickel, arsenic, chromium, mustard has, uranium

10

chronic obstructive lung disease

grain dust
coal dust
cadmium

11

hypersensitivity

beryllium
isocyanates

12

irritation

ammonia
sulfur dioxide
formaldehyde

13

fibrosis

silica
asbestos
cobalt

14

peripheral neuropathies

solvents, acrylamide, methyl chloride, mercury, lead, arsenic, DDT

15

ataxic gait

chlordane, toluene, acrylamide, mercury

16

CNS depression

alcohol
ketone
aldehyde
solvent

17

cataracts

UV radiation

18

toxicity to urinary system

mercury, lead, glycol ethers, solvents

19

bladder cancer

napthylamines, 4-aminobiphenyl
benzidine
rubber products

20

male infertility

lead
phthalate plasticizers
cadmium

21

female infertility

lead
mercury

22

teratogenesis or repro

mercury
polychlorinated biphenyls

23

leukemia

benzene

24

liver angiosarcoma

vinyl chloride

25

most common exogenous cause of human cancers

tobacco

26

cigarettes

associated with atherosclerosis

27

cessation of smoking

reduces within 5 years risk of death and cardiovascualr diseases

mortality decreases by 21% within 5 years, but excess risk lats 30 years

28

most preventable cause of human death

smoking

29

diseases caused by cigarette smoking

emphysema
chronic bronchitis
COPD
lung cancer

30

associated with cigarette smoking

atherosclerosis
myocardial infarcts
cancer of lip, mouth, pharynx, esophagus, bladder, kidney, cervix

31

carcinogens in tobacco smoke

tar
polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
benzopyrene
nitrosamine

32

alcohol level with drowsiness

200mg/dL

33

alcohol level and stupor

300 mg/dL

34

alcohol and coma and resp. arrest

higher than 300 mg/dL

35

metabolism of alcohol

most to acetaldehyde in liver

enzymes - ADH, MEOS, catalase

36

ADH

main enzyme system for alcohol

MEOS system - at higher levels of alcohol

37

ALDH

converts acetaldehyde to acetate

used in mito resp chain

38

alcohol and CYP

upregulates CYP2E1
-in smooth ER

increased susceptibility to other compounds

39

ALDH2*1

normal ALDH

40

ALDH2*2

dominant negative activity
-in asians

homozygous for 2*2 - cannot tolerate alcohol

41

alcohol metabolism and fatty liver

ADH reduces NAD to NADH

NAD required for fatty acid oxication in liver
-deficiency leads to fatty liver

also leads to lactic acidosis

42

acute alcoholism

main effects on CNS
acute gastritis and ulceration
depressant of CNS

43

chronic alcohol and liver

fatty liver - steatosis

44

chronic alcohol and GI/esophagus

hemorrhagic gastritis
esophageal varices

45

thiamine deficiency

vitamin B1

peripheral neuropathy
wernicke-korsakoff syndrome

in chronic alcoholics

46

heart and chronic alcohol

dilated cardiomyopathies

-moderate alcohol - increase HDL - inhibit platelet aggregation, protect against coronary heart disease

47

fetal alcohol syndrome

pregnant women and alcohol

microcephaly
growth retardation
facial abnormalities
reduced mental functions

during first trimester most dangerous