Environmental and Nutritional Diseases III Flashcards Preview

PBD II Exam 1 > Environmental and Nutritional Diseases III > Flashcards

Flashcards in Environmental and Nutritional Diseases III Deck (44):
1

HRT

hormone replacement therapy
-often post-menopausal women

estrogen with progesterone

2

negative effects of HRT

cancer risk
-breast, endometrial, ovarian

also increased thromboembolsim

3

HRT and breast cancer

increases risk after 5-8 years of use

4

HRT and atherosclerosis and coronary disease

beneficial in women under age 60

5

HRT and thromboembolism

increased risk
-DVT and PEs
-during first 2 years of treatment
-those who are hypercoagulable
-factor V and PT mutations

6

risks of oral contraceptives

synthetic estradiol and progestin
-currently - lower estrogens and safer

7

OC and thromboembolism

3x increase in venous thrombosis and pulmonary thromboembolism

increased further with factor V leiden and PT mutations

-consequence if acute-phase response - increased C reactive proteins and coag factors
-also, reduction in anticoag - protein S and antithrombin III

8

OC and cardiovascular disease

increased risk of MI in smoking women all ages and nonsmoking women over age 35

9

OC and cancer

reduce endometrial and ovarian cancer

increase in hepatic adenoma**

10

older women who have used OC for long time

increased risk for hepatic adenoma**

large , solitary, well encapsulated masses

11

anabolic steroids

synthetic testosterone

inhibit release of LH and FSH

increase amount of estrogens

12

adverse effects of steroids

stunted growth in adolescent
acne
gynecomastia
testicular atrophy in males
facial hair and menstrual changes in females

13

asthma from drug rxns

salicylates

14

acute pneumonitis from drug rxns

nitrofurantoin

15

interstitial fibrosis from drug rxns

bleomycin**
nitrofurantoin
busulfan

16

tinnitus and dizziness and drug rxns

salicylates

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acute dystonic rxns and parkinsonian syndrome and drug rxns

phenothiazine antipsychotics

18

respiratory depression and drug rxns

sedatives

19

fatty liver change and drug rxns

tetracycline

20

acetaminophen

most commonly used analgesic in US

21

LD-50

dosage at which 50% of people die
-large for acetominophen

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therapeutic doses of acetaminophen

detox in liver - phase 2 enzymes and excreted in urine

-5% to NAPQI (by CYP2E)-conjugated with glutathione (GSH)

23

larger dose of acetaminophen

excess NAPQI not conjugated with glutathione

-accumulates and causes hepatocellular injury leading to centrilobular necrosis

-mechanism:
covalent binding to hepatic proteins
depletion of GSH - more susceptible to ROS

24

chronic alcoholics and acetaminophen

injury to liver can occur at lower doses

25

N-acetyl cysteine

Tx for acetaminophen overdose
-restores GSH levels

26

acetylsalicylic acid

aspirin

alkalosis by stimulation of resp center in medulla
-followed by metabolic acidosis

-acidosis leads to non-ionized forms reaching brain - nausea and coma

27

fatal dose of aspirin

children 2-4g
adult 10-30g

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salicylism

chronic aspirin toxicity
-3g or more daily

HAs, dizzy, ringing ears (tinnitus), hearing impairment, mental confusion, drowsiness, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea

29

morph of chronic salicylism

acute erosive gastritis
-GI bleeds and ulcers

bleeding tendencdy - block TxA2 formation

30

analgesic nephropathy

from taking aspirin with acetaminophen over several years

can cause tubulointerstitial nephritis with renal papillary necrosis

31

cocaine

from coca plant
-in nugget - crack

very addictive

sympathomimetic
-often leads to hyperpyrexia

32

cardiovascular and cocaine

sympathomimetic
-blocks reuptake of dopamine as well as NE and E

-tachycardia, HTN, periphearl vasoconstriction

myocardial ischemia - from coronary a constriction
-smoking increases the coronary constriction

33

cocaine and neurotransmission

CNS synapse - block reuptake of dopamine
-leads to euphoria, paranoia, hyperthermia

sympathetic neuron synapse - block reuptake of NE and E
-leads to HTN, arrhythmias, MI, cerebral hemorrhage, and infarct

34

heroin

addictive opiod
-related to morphine

-euphoria, hallucinations, somnolence, sedation

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cut with heroin

talc or quinine

talc can cause pulmonary injury

quinine is neuro, renal, auditory toxicity

36

most common infection of addicted heroin users

viral hepatitis
-from sharing needles

37

Staph aureus and heroin

common infection causing endocarditis

right sided heart valves - particularly the tricuspid

38

methadone

treatment of heroin addiction

currently used as painkiller

39

cutaneous lesion

telltale sign of heroin addiction

40

methamphetamine

speed or meth
-addicitve
-releases dopamine into brain
-slows glutamate release

euphoria followed by crash

41

MDMA

ecstacy
-euphoria and hallucinogens

-increase release of serotonin in CNS

42

marijuana

THC is psychoactive

benefits - treat nausea, chronic pain, glaucoma, weight issues, cancer cachexia

3x as much tar as cigarettes

43

endogenous cannabinoid receptors

CB1 and CB2

lipid ligands - endocannabinoids

regulation of hypothalamic pituitary axis
-modulates appetite, food intake, energy balance, fertility, sexual behavior

44

start at

injury by physical agents

page 420