Environmental and Nutritional Diseases IV Flashcards Preview

PBD II Exam 1 > Environmental and Nutritional Diseases IV > Flashcards

Flashcards in Environmental and Nutritional Diseases IV Deck (55):
1

abrasion

removal of superficial layer of skin

2

contusion

bruise
-damage to blood vessels and extravasation of blood into tissues

3

laceration

blunt force that causes tear of skin
-have intact bridging blood vessels and jagged irregular edges

4

incised wound

one from sharp instrument

5

puncture wound

long, narrow, instrument

penetrating - pierces tissue
perforating - creates exit wound

6

gunshot wound

puncture wounds

7

most common cause of mechanical injury

vehicular accident

8

thermal injury

excessive heat or cold

9

clinical significance of burns

depth
percent of body
internal injuries
promptness of therapy

10

superficial burns

only epidermis

11

partial thickness burns

injury to dermis

12

full thickness burns

to subQ tissue
-may also damage muscle tissue

13

greatest threats to life in burn patients

shock
sepsis
respiratory insufficiency

percent over 20%

14

burn over 20% of body

body fluids to interstitium
-hypovolemic shock

15

hypermetabolic state

excess heat loss
-with burns

with increased need for nutritional support

16

most common infection in burns

pseudomonas aeruginosa

also s. aureus
and candida

17

water soluble gases

chlorine, sulfur oxides, ammonia - to upper airways

18

lipid soluble gases

nitrous oxide - to deep airways

19

hypertrophic scars

in burn patients
-due to substance P excess

20

different morph of burns

full thickness - white, charred, dry, anesthetic

partial thickness - pink, mottled, blistered, painful

21

heat cramps

loss of electolytes via sweating

cramping of voluntary muscles with vigorous exercise

22

heat exhaustion

failure of cardiovascular system to compensate to hypovolemia

23

heat stroke

sweathing stops
thermoregulation fails
multi-organ dysfunction
generalized vasodilation

24

nitrosylation of RYR1

in heat stroke
-rhabdomyolysis and myocardium necrosis

RYR1 involved in release of calcium from SR

25

malignant hyperthermia

mutations in RYR1

rise in core temp and muscle contractures in response to common anesthetics

26

body temp below 90

loss of consciousness occurs
-bradycardia and atrial fib

27

direct hypothermic injury

physical disruptions within cells by high salt concentrations caused by crystallization of intra and extracellular water

28

indirect hypothermic injury

result from circulatory changes
-vasoconstriction and increased vascular permeability
-edema and hypoxia result

ex. trench foot

29

electrical injuries

burns
ventricular fib, cardiac failure, and resp center failure

30

alternating current

in most homes
-induces tetanic muscle spasm
-greater likelihood of burns and chest wall mm spasms

31

radiation

energy traveling in forms of waves or particles

32

non-ionizing radiation

UV, infrared, microwave, sound waves - cannot displace electrons

33

ionizing radiation

energy to remove electrons
-X-rays, gamma ray, alpha particles, beta particles, high energy neutrons

34

curie

Ci - disintegrations per second of radionuclide

35

gray

Gy - unit that expresses energy absorbed by target tissue per unit mass

36

Sievert

Sv - unit of equivalent dose

absorbed dose multiplied by relative bio effectiveness of radiation

37

determinants of bio effects of ionizing radiation

rate of delivery

field size

cell proliferation - dividing cells more vulnerable

38

vulnerable to radiation

gonads, bone marrow, lymph tissue, GI mucosa

39

DNA damage by radiation

ROS production from radiolysis of water

40

brain and radiation

adult - resistant
child - destruction of neurons and glial cells

41

skin and radiation

erythema and edema
dyspigmentation
atrophy/cancer

42

lungs and radiation

edema
ARDS
fibrosis

43

problem plaguing pathologist

similarity between cancer cells and radiation injured cells

44

total body irradiation

large areas exposed to small doses
-may have devastating affects

45

temporary sterility from radiation

0.15 Sv
-testes

46

depression of hematopoiesis from radiation

0.5 Sv
-bone marrow

47

reversible skin changes from radiation

1-2 Sv

48

permanent sterility from radiation

2.5-6 Sv
ovaries

49

hair loss from radiation

3-5 Sv

50

permanent sterility from radiation in men

3.5 Sv

51

cataracts from radiation

5 Sv

52

fibrosis and radiation

in the irradiated field

53

most serious DNA damage by radiation

double strand breaks

fixed by NHEJ and homologous recombination

54

bystander effects

irradiated cells with mutations secrete cytokines that influence cells around them

55

radon

decay of uranium
carcinogenic

decay products polonium 214 and 218
-emit alpha particles