Environmental and Occupational Influences on Health Flashcards Preview

FOPC > Environmental and Occupational Influences on Health > Flashcards

Flashcards in Environmental and Occupational Influences on Health Deck (24):
1

Define hazard

Something with the potential to cause harm

2

Define risk

The likelihood of harm occurring

3

Define risk factor

Increases the risk of harm

4

Define protective factor

Decreases the risk of harm

5

Define susceptibility

Influences the likelihood that something will cause harm

6

Name 5 types of hazards

Physical
Chemical
Mechanical
Biological
Psychological

7

Name 4 routes of exposure

Skin
Blood/sexual
Inhalation
Ingestion

8

Name 3 factors that influence the degree of risk

How much a person is exposed
How the person is exposed
Conditions of exposure

9

What are the two foundations of risk

Probability that a particular outcome will occur and the severity of the harm involved

10

Do people perceive risks the same?

No

11

What are 3 principles that govern the perception of risk?

Feeling in control
Size of possible harm
Familiarity with the risk

12

Describe the feeling in control on perception of risk

Involuntary risk are perceived greater
Voluntary risks are perceived as less risk

13

Describe size of possible harm on perception of risk

Greater possible harm through to be greater risk, even though less harmful events are more likely

14

Describe the familiarity with risk on the perception of risk

Risks that are less familiar are thought to be greater risk

15

What is the general perception of risk?

More frightened by catastrophic risks, single events with large immediate consequences, than chronic risks where the damage is spread out over a long time

16

Name 7 individual variables that influence their risk perception

Previous experience
Attitudes towards risk
Values
Beliefs
Socio-economic factors
Personality
Demographic factors

17

What are 3 direct pathological effects on health from the environment?

Physical: radiation, noise/vibration
Chemical: pesticides
Biological: infectious agents, allergens

18

What are 3 indirect pathological effects on health from the environment?

Housing (overcrowding)
Transport (does it encourage walking or car use?)
Town planning
Income/welfare/wealth distribution

19

Give 3 examples of hazardous exposure

Diet: fat, salt, bacteria
Inhalation: tobacco smoke, asbestos
Dermal: UV-A/B, bacteria

20

How does climate change affect health?

Extreme heat
Natural disasters and variable rainfall pattern
Infection - water-borne disease

21

How many deaths a year occur due to harmful working conditions?

12 000

22

How many death have occurred due to occupation cancer?

8000 in UK, 4000 due to asbestos

23

How many cases of ill health due to work have been recorded?

1.2 million

24

What are factors that influence global health and sustainability?

Inequalities in health within and between countries

Local problems may be generated or have consequences globally

Effective use of limited resources

Technology

Managing expectation and facilitating behavioural change

Politics/human rights/gender issues