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Flashcards in Environmental health Deck (11):
1

mechanism of smoking and caricnoma

o Direct DNA damage (oncogenic mutations, inter-individual variation in DNA repair capacity (explains why some people can smoke their whole life)

2

types of mutation in smoking and carcinoma

o CT mutation (in p53) more common in people who smoke (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons association)
o KRAS mutation implications for therapy (present in more people who smoke and have adenocarcinoma)

3

mechanisms of smoking and cardiovascular disease risk

o Development of atherosclerotic changes
♣ Chronic inflammation in smokers (raised WCC and acute phase reactants)
♣ Lipid abnormalities (higher and oxidised free radical production)
♣ Endothelial dysfunction (nitric oxide alters vasodilation (impaired function))
o Induction of hypercoagulable state due to intrinsic factors)
♣ (Acute thrombosis rapid decline in risk of myocardial infarction after smoking cessation)

4

mechanism of asbestos and bad news

♣ Macrophages try and break down
♣ Ferruginous bodies are a surface where reactive oxygen species can be catalysed (macrophages ingesting these exacerbate this production of reactive oxygen species)
♣ Surface directly interacts with DNA and RNA by proteins absorbed on surface


Chronic inflammation from these bodies

5

results from asbestos sniffing

fibrosis, mesothelioma, adenocarcinoma, pleural plaques

6

what is bad about lead

o Incorporates into bone and teeth (competes with Ca+)

7

chronic expsorue of lead

• Decreased IQ (children), cognitive decline (adults), anaemia, renal dysfunction

8

acute exposure of lead

neuropathies

9

what are the results from UV radiation

o Chronic exposure solar keratosis (preinvasive neoplastic process)
o Squamous cell carcinoma produces keratin, invasive lesion.
o Basal cell carcinoma no propensity to mestastasised
o Melanoma

10

what is hyperthermia and what are the outcomes

o Core 41-42 confusion, cardiac and respiratory dysfunction (denaturation of cell proteins)
o Vasodilation, oedma and clotting, acidosis

11

what is hypothermia and what are the outcomes

o Core below 35, causes confusion, loss of shiver response (further drop in temp)
o Diuresis, cardiac arrhythmia, pulmonary oedema

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