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Flashcards in Environmental health Deck (11)

mechanism of smoking and caricnoma

o Direct DNA damage (oncogenic mutations, inter-individual variation in DNA repair capacity (explains why some people can smoke their whole life)


types of mutation in smoking and carcinoma

o CT mutation (in p53) more common in people who smoke (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons association)
o KRAS mutation implications for therapy (present in more people who smoke and have adenocarcinoma)


mechanisms of smoking and cardiovascular disease risk

o Development of atherosclerotic changes
♣ Chronic inflammation in smokers (raised WCC and acute phase reactants)
♣ Lipid abnormalities (higher and oxidised free radical production)
♣ Endothelial dysfunction (nitric oxide alters vasodilation (impaired function))
o Induction of hypercoagulable state due to intrinsic factors)
♣ (Acute thrombosis rapid decline in risk of myocardial infarction after smoking cessation)


mechanism of asbestos and bad news

♣ Macrophages try and break down
♣ Ferruginous bodies are a surface where reactive oxygen species can be catalysed (macrophages ingesting these exacerbate this production of reactive oxygen species)
♣ Surface directly interacts with DNA and RNA by proteins absorbed on surface

Chronic inflammation from these bodies


results from asbestos sniffing

fibrosis, mesothelioma, adenocarcinoma, pleural plaques


what is bad about lead

o Incorporates into bone and teeth (competes with Ca+)


chronic expsorue of lead

• Decreased IQ (children), cognitive decline (adults), anaemia, renal dysfunction


acute exposure of lead



what are the results from UV radiation

o Chronic exposure solar keratosis (preinvasive neoplastic process)
o Squamous cell carcinoma produces keratin, invasive lesion.
o Basal cell carcinoma no propensity to mestastasised
o Melanoma


what is hyperthermia and what are the outcomes

o Core 41-42 confusion, cardiac and respiratory dysfunction (denaturation of cell proteins)
o Vasodilation, oedma and clotting, acidosis


what is hypothermia and what are the outcomes

o Core below 35, causes confusion, loss of shiver response (further drop in temp)
o Diuresis, cardiac arrhythmia, pulmonary oedema

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