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Flashcards in Environmental Health Deck (15):

What are the stages of a health risk assessment?q1

Planning and profiling
Risk assessment
Risk management
Risk Communication


Stages of risk communication

1. Define issue
2. Identify stakeholders
3. Set objectives
4. Develop and agree key messages
5. Plan actions and communication channels
6. Evaluate


Stages of risk management

1. Risk evaluation
2. Risk mitigation
3. Decision making
4. Monitoring


Stages of risk assessment

1. Hazard identification
2. dose-response
3. Exposure assessment
4. Risk Characterization


What is hazard identification?

What are the health effects that are caused by the hazard?
What is the quality of the evidence?
How: literature, toxicology and epi studies, chem databases


What is dose-response assessment?

What are the health problems at different exposures? Is there a threshold?
How: animal and human studies, modelling (extrapolating from experimental/epi data)


What is Exposure assessment?

Who is exposed (any vulnerable?)
How much are people exposed?
How many people are exposed?
What is the source of exposure? The route? Amount? Time period? Frequency?
How: can be DIRECT (sampling of people) or more often INDIRECT (environmental measure) - though measurement of concentrations in the environment


What is Risk Characterisation?

What is the extra risk of health problems in teh exposed population?
How: combines information from previous 3 steps, along with different exposure scenarios and uncertainty. Usually carried out by experts (MOsH move into more watchdog/advisory role)


What is risk evaluation?

Undertake risk/benefit analysis
What is the level of acceptability of risk?
What is the feasibility of alternatives?


What is risk mitigation?

What are the options to control exposure?
1) Environmental
2) Behavioural (eg education, hand washing, cleaning)


What is Decision Making

Have to make a decision about what to do
Need to consider bigger picture, consider equity, the environment, social/public perception, political will/climate


What is monitoring

Need to monitor any ongoing risk
Evaluation any mitigation measures take


What are the different objectives of risk communication?

Need to gauge risk perception and figure out role
1) Outrage management: low risk, low outrage
2) Precaution advocacy: High risk, low outrage
3) Crisis communication: High risk, high outrage
4) Health education: Low risk, low outrage


What do you need to consider when developing key messages?

What do people need to know?
What do people want to know?


What are the principles of good risk communication?

Clear and consistent messaging
Credible information - use experts
Honest - acknowledge uncertainty, be transparent
Respect concerns
Early - be proactive
Two way process