Flashcards in Environmental Pathology Deck (45)
What does environmental disease refer to?
Lesions and conditions cause by chemical and physical agents resulting from where, what and how we live
Before an autopsy what is needed?
Family consent is necessary
What is the addiction from tobacco use caused from?
Dopamine receptors in the brain
Cigarette smoking is high in ____ and ____.
Mortality and Morbidity
What is cigarette smoking associated with in excess mortality?
Chronic bronchitis and emphysema
Coronary heart disease
If a pregnant lady smokes as little as 10 cigarettes a day what could occur?
Inc rate of spontaneous abortion
Low birth weight
Inc perinatal mortality
Inc sudden infant death syndrome SIDS
Smoking in the house around an infant can cause;
Sudden infant death syndrome
Respiratory illness later in life
2nd had smoke is the equivalence of smoking ___ cigs a day.
What are some lung injuries related to air pollution?
Acute and chronic inflammation - direct cell injury
Asthma-allergic or irritant effect
Hypersensitivity pneumonitis - immunologic injury related to organic dusts
Neoplasia -mutagenic/promoting effects
What are the main constituents of smog?
SO2 - respiratory irritant (acid rain)
NO2*, NO - respiratory irritant (xs O2)
CO - carboxyhemoglobin (O2)
O3* - respiratory irritant
Pb binds sulfhydryl groups
mostly produced by;
Combustion of fossil fuels
What could occur in someone who works with toxins that may be inhaled (like a miner)?
Characterized by cytokine mediated, progressive fibrotic scarring
What is pneumoconiosis?
"Dust in the lungs"
Non-neoplastic lung reaction to inhalation of mineral, organic or inorganic dust particulates
Includes chemical fume (vapor) induced lung disease
What are the different pathogens which can cause pneumoconiosis?
What is the simple/uncomplicated phase of coal-worker's pneumoconiosis?
Macule composed of dust-containing macrophages in a mesh of collagen fibers
What is the complicated stage of coal-worker's pneumoconiosis?
Nodules can coalesce
"Progressive massive fibrosis"
Centrilobular (centriacinar) emphysema
Chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis
What causes black lung disease?
Carbon particles which are weakly fibrogenic (anthracosis)
Other coal components cause more issues - silica and trace metals
What is brown lung disease
Cotton weakly fibrogenic
Endotoxin from the gram negative bacteria within the cotton
What does silicon contamination cause?
What is silicosis?
A chronic, nodular, densely fibrosing pneumoconiosis
Acellular fibrous nodules in upper zones of lungs containing birefringent particles of silica and silicates
What is asbestosis?
Parenchymal interstitial fibrosis
Predisposes to bronchogenic carcinoma
Causes pleural effusions, localized fibrous plaques, diffuse pleral fibrosis
Possible laryngeal cancer
What are the two types of asbestos?
Progressive massive fibrosis
What is serpentine asbestos?
Curly and flexible fibrogebic fibers
What is amphibole asbestos?
Straight, stiff and brittle
Align parallel to airway, deep impact
Spear epithelial cell and enter interstitium
What is progressive massive fibrosis asbestos?
Gross, small, firm, dark brown lungs
Seen via light microscopy
What would be seen pathologically in pleura plaques?
Gross: gray-white to ivory white, posterolateral thorac and dome of diaphragm
Light micro: acellular basket-weave collagen
What would be seen pathologically in bronchogenic carcinoma (adeno) and malignant mesothelioma?
Gross: encasing and arising from the pleura
Si + Fe =
Adverse drug events (ADE)
Injury due to medical treatment
4% of hospitalized pts