Environmental Pathology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Environmental Pathology Deck (45)
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1

What does environmental disease refer to?

Lesions and conditions cause by chemical and physical agents resulting from where, what and how we live

2

Before an autopsy what is needed?

Family consent is necessary

3

What is the addiction from tobacco use caused from?

Dopamine receptors in the brain

4

Cigarette smoking is high in ____ and ____.

Mortality and Morbidity

5

What is cigarette smoking associated with in excess mortality?

Chronic bronchitis and emphysema
Coronary heart disease
Bronchogenic carcinoma

6

If a pregnant lady smokes as little as 10 cigarettes a day what could occur?

Inc rate of spontaneous abortion
Low birth weight
Inc perinatal mortality
Inc sudden infant death syndrome SIDS

7

Smoking in the house around an infant can cause;

Sudden infant death syndrome
Asthma
Acute illness
Respiratory illness later in life

8

2nd had smoke is the equivalence of smoking ___ cigs a day.

3

9

What are some lung injuries related to air pollution?

Acute and chronic inflammation - direct cell injury
Emphysema-enhanced proteolysis
Asthma-allergic or irritant effect
Hypersensitivity pneumonitis - immunologic injury related to organic dusts
Pneumoconiosis-cytokines
Neoplasia -mutagenic/promoting effects

10

What are the main constituents of smog?

SO2 - respiratory irritant (acid rain)
NO2*, NO - respiratory irritant (xs O2)
CO - carboxyhemoglobin (O2)
O3* - respiratory irritant
Pb binds sulfhydryl groups

11

Oxidant pollutants
mostly produced by;

Combustion of fossil fuels

12

What could occur in someone who works with toxins that may be inhaled (like a miner)?

Pneumoconiosis
Characterized by cytokine mediated, progressive fibrotic scarring

13

What is pneumoconiosis?

"Dust in the lungs"
Non-neoplastic lung reaction to inhalation of mineral, organic or inorganic dust particulates
Includes chemical fume (vapor) induced lung disease

14

What are the different pathogens which can cause pneumoconiosis?

Asbestosis
Silicosis
Beryllium
Cotton
Heavy Dust

15

What is the simple/uncomplicated phase of coal-worker's pneumoconiosis?

Macule composed of dust-containing macrophages in a mesh of collagen fibers

16

What is the complicated stage of coal-worker's pneumoconiosis?

Nodules can coalesce
"Progressive massive fibrosis"
Centrilobular (centriacinar) emphysema
Chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis

17

What causes black lung disease?

Carbon particles which are weakly fibrogenic (anthracosis)
Other coal components cause more issues - silica and trace metals

18

What is brown lung disease

Cotton weakly fibrogenic
Endotoxin from the gram negative bacteria within the cotton

19

What does silicon contamination cause?

Silicosis

20

What is silicosis?

A chronic, nodular, densely fibrosing pneumoconiosis
Acellular fibrous nodules in upper zones of lungs containing birefringent particles of silica and silicates
"Honeycomb" lung

21

What is asbestosis?

Parenchymal interstitial fibrosis
Predisposes to bronchogenic carcinoma
Causes pleural effusions, localized fibrous plaques, diffuse pleral fibrosis
Possible laryngeal cancer

22

What are the two types of asbestos?

Serpentine
Amphibole
Progressive massive fibrosis

23

What is serpentine asbestos?

Curly and flexible fibrogebic fibers
Not pathogenic

24

What is amphibole asbestos?

Straight, stiff and brittle
Align parallel to airway, deep impact
Spear epithelial cell and enter interstitium
Very pathogenic

25

What is progressive massive fibrosis asbestos?

Gross, small, firm, dark brown lungs
Honeycomb lung
Seen via light microscopy

26

What would be seen pathologically in pleura plaques?

Gross: gray-white to ivory white, posterolateral thorac and dome of diaphragm
Light micro: acellular basket-weave collagen

27

What would be seen pathologically in bronchogenic carcinoma (adeno) and malignant mesothelioma?

Gross: encasing and arising from the pleura

28

Si + Fe =

Ferruginous body

29

Adverse drug events (ADE)

Injury due to medical treatment
4% of hospitalized pts

30

What are some common reasons for ADEs

Lack of drug knowedlge, lack of pt info, rule violations, slip ups, memory lapses