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1

What's environmental science?

Interdisciplinary study of how humans interact with the living and nonliving parts of their environment

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Goals of environmental science:
To learn how life on earth has - and -.

To understand how we - with the environment

To find ways to deal with the environmental - and to live -.

Survived and thrived

Interact

Problems, sustainably

3

Sustainability

The practice of using a natural resources at a rate that is less than or equal to the rate at which it is naturally replenished

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Natural resource

Anything humans obtain from nature that is useful or economically valuable

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Renewable resources

Are replenished in a period of time that will allow them to be useful/available for human consumption

Can be used sustainably

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What renewable resources are being depleted due to unsustainable use

Timber, fertile soil, fisheries

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Examples of nonrenewable resources

Coal, crude oil, copper, iron, gold

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Nonrenewable resource use can be - by - and -

Prolonged by reuse and recycling

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-, -, and - are being used at a rate that is not helped even by reuse and recycling

Crude oil, coal, uranium

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3 natural factors that have sustained life on earth

1. Dependence on solar energy
2. Biodiversity
3. Chemical cycling

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The sun powers - and -.

Wind and flowing water

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Biodiversity

The variety of genes, organisms, species, and ecosystems in which organisms exist and interact. Maintain population size and diversity. Provides opportunity for adaptations

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In chemical cycling, wastes of any organism become - or raw materials for other organisms

Nutrients

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Human impact of environment factors (2)

Living unsustainably
Pollution

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Environmental degradation (natural capital degradation)

Wasting, depleting, and degrading earth's natural capital at an accelerating rate

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Results of living unsustainably (5)

Deserts are expanding
Topsoil is eroding
Ocean acidity is increasing
Floods, droughts, severe weather, forest fires are more frequent
Rivers are running dry

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If ocean acidity is increasing, PH is

Decreasing

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Commons

Resources that are free and available to everyone

Ex: publicly owned forests, rangelands, open oceans, rivers, air

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Tragedy of the commons

Environmental degradation of commonly held resources

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Strategies to avoid tragedy of the commons (2)

1. Regulations or regulations placed on use of the resource
2. Privatize a commons by dividing it up among the population (indiv less likely to degrade a resource they own)

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Point source

Single, identifiable source
(Ex: drainpipe of a factory)

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Nonpoint source

Dispersed and often difficult to identify (ex: runoff of fertilizers into streams)

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Ecological footprint

The amount of land or water needed to supply a person or an area with renewable resources such as food and water and absorb and recycle the wastes and pollution produced by such resource use

A measure of the harmful environmental impact due to use of resources

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Per capita ecological footprint

Average ecological footprint of an individual in a given country or area

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Affluence

State of having a great deal of money; wealth
Allows people to use resources at an unsustainable rate

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Matter

Anything that occupies space and has mass

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Mass

A measurement of the amount of matter (how many atoms and things)

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Volume

The amount of space occupied by matter

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Element

One kind of atom

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Compound

At least 2 different kinds of atoms chemically combined

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Atom

Smallest particle of matter

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Ion

Charged particle
Positive: cation
Negative: anion

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Molecule

Neutral groups of atoms held together by covalent bonds

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Formulas unit

Simple bonds hold compounds together, lowest number ratio

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Isotope

Atom of an element that differ in the number of neutrons in the nuclei

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Atomic number

Number of protons in the nucleus

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Mass number

Total number of protons and neutrons in nucleus, distinguishes one isotope from another

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Covalent and ionic

Intramolecular forces

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Covalent bonds

Formed by sharing valence electrons between nonmetal atoms

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Ionic bond

Nonmetal and metal atom valence electrons bond

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Intermolecular forces

Forces of attraction between molecules

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Dispersion forces

Occur between nonpolar molecules

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Dipole forces

Occur between polar molecules

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Hydrogen bonds

Special kind of dipole force, form between H end of one molecule and the oxygen, nitrogen, or fluorine of another molecule, important in behavior of water

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Surface tension

Tautness of surface of liquid caused by cohesion of molecules of the liquid ,
Water had a really high surface tension

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Cohesion

Holding together of molecules of the same substance

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Adhesion

Holding together of molecules of a different substance

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Specific heat capacity

The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of a substance, water has very high specific heat

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Boiling point

Change of liquid to a gas

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Water is less - as a solid than as a liquid

Dense

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Water will dissolve - and - substances because of-

Polar, ionic, similar structures

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Acids

Substances that increase hydrogen ion concentration in water

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Bases

Substances that increase hydroxide ion concentration in water

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Ph

Indication of hydrogen concentration

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Chemical reactions occur when atoms - from molecules or - with other molecules

Separate, recombine

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Organic compounds

Compounds containing carbon

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Hydrocarbons

Simplest organic compounds

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Kinds of organic compounds (4)

Carbohydrates
Proteins
Nucleic acids
Lipids

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Carbohydrates are composed of -, -, and -.

Are - of monosaccharides

Monosaccharides are - of carbohydrates.

Monosaccharide: --

Are - storage molecules.

Animals: - (-)

Plants: -(-), -(-)

Chemical formula:

Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen

Polymers

Monomers

Simple sugar

Energy

Glucose (energy)

Cellulose (structural)
Starch (energy)

CH2O

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Proteins are - containing organic molecules.

Are polymers of --.

Monomer is an --.

Function in --, --,--,-,and -.

Enzymes: --

Polymers are -, so amino acid is -.

- speeds reaction up.

Nitrogen

Amino acids

Structural support, energy storage, internal transport, defense, and regulation.

Biological catalysts.

Proteins, monomer.

Catalysts

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Nucleic acids serve as - storage.

Are polymers of -.

- is a nucleotide.

Kinds of nucleic acids: DNA, RNA

DNA: -stranded (--), able to - (-itself), contains - information

RNA: sugar is -, unable to -, RNA has to be made from -, - stranded

Types of RNA: - RNA, - RNA

Information

Nucleotides

Nucleotide

DNA, RNA

Double (double helix), replicate (copy itself), hereditary information

Ribose, replicate, DNA, single stranded

Ribosomal RNA, Transfer RNA

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Polymers

Molecules made of many subunits

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3 types of polymers

Carbs

Hydrates

Nucleic acids

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Monomers

Subunit

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Examples of monosaccharide (3)

Glucose, fructose, galactose

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Examples of disaccharides

Table sugar (sucrose), milk sugar (lactose)

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Another name for polysaccharides and examples (3)

Carbohydrates

Cellulose, starch, glycogen

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Lipids are organic molecules that are - in water.

Main characteristic that gets things categorized as lipid is-.

Are not -.

Function in -. -. -.

If a chain of hydrogen and carbon are short enough, - in water. Long --.

Insoluble

Polymers

Energy storage, waterproofing/coatings, membrane components

Dissolve, won't dissolve

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Energy

The capacity to do work or transfer heat

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Types of energy (4)

Potential

Kinetic

Electromagnetic radiation

Chemical

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Potential energy

Stored energy or energy of motion

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Electromagnetic radiation

-: colors of visible light in order from longest wavelength to the shortest

-: longest waves, - energy, - frequency

-: shortest waves, - energy, - frequency.

Energy that moves like waves

ROYGBIV

Red, least, least

Violet, most, most

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Chemical energy

Potential energy stored in chemical bonds

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1st law of thermodynamics

Energy is neither created nor destroyed but can change from one form to another

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2nd law of thermodynamics

When energy is transformed, the quantity of energy remains the same, but it's ability to do work diminishes

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Anytime there's an energy conversion, some energy will be ---.

Lost as heat

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All systems move towards - rather than -. Law of -. Degree of disorder:-.

Randomness, law of entropy, entropy

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Energy quality

The ease with which an energy source can be used for work. A measure of the capacity (ability) of a type of energy to do useful work.

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High quality energy, ex

Concentrated energy that has a high capacity to do useful work

Gasoline

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Low quality energy, ex

Energy that is so dispersed that it has little capacity to do useful work

Wood

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Watt

Amount of energy used over time

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Open system, ex

Exchanges of matter and energy occur across this system

Earth: sunlight comes from space, reflected back

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Closed system, ex

Exchanges of energy and matter do not occur across system boundaries

Earth: matter can't leave earth to space and back, little beaker inside big beaker

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System analysis

Analysis to determine endputs, outputs, and changes in a system under various conditions

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Steady state

Input equal outputs so system is not changing over time (equilberium)

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Feedbacks

Types?

Adjustments in input or output rates caused by changes to a system

Negative or positive feedback loops

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Negative feedback loop:
System responds to change by retuning to its --, or by - the rate at which the change is occurring

Causing a system to change in - direction from which it is moving

- to a --.

Original state, decreasing

Opposite

Regulation, stabilization to a set point

Ex: maintain constant body temperature

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Positive feedback loop

A change in a system is amplified (or increased). Causes a system to change further in the same direction.

Amplification

Population in area increase, increase in births, more people, increase in births, etc.