Enzymes and Digestion Flashcards Preview

Year 12 Cell structure > Enzymes and Digestion > Flashcards

Flashcards in Enzymes and Digestion Deck (23)
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1

What do bile salts do to lipids?

Emulsify them

2

What does emulsification achieve?

A greater surface area for the reaction with lipases

3

Lipid + bile salt =

Emulsified lipid

4

Emulsified lipid + lipase =

Fatty acids and glycerol

5

Name the enzyme used to hydrolyse lipids.

Lipase

6

Where are lipases made?

Pancreas

7

What does lipase do?

Hydrolyse the ester bond found in triglycerides to form fatty acids and monoglycerides

8

What are proteins hydrolysed by?

Peptidases (proteases)

9

What are the three types of peptidases?

Endopeptidases, exopeptidases and dipeptidases

10

What does an endopeptidase do?

Hydrolyses the peptide bonds between amino acids in the central region of a protein molecule, forming a series of peptide molecules.

11

What does an exopeptidase do?

Hydrolyses the peptide bonds on the terminal amino acids of the peptide molecules formed by endopeptidases. In this way they progressively release dipeptides and single amino acids

12

What do dipeptidases do?

Dipeptidases hydrolyse the bond between the two amino acids of a dipeptide. Dipeptide said are membrane - bound (part of the cell-surface membrane of epithelial cells lining ileum)

13

What is linear starch made of?

Amylose

14

What is branched starch made of?

Amylopectin

15

Name the enzyme that hydrolyses starch.

Amylase

16

Name the bond hydrolysed by amylase.

Glycosidic bond

17

What do the acidic conditions in the stomach do to the amylase

Denature it

18

What does starch mix with in the intestine?

Pancreatic juice, which contains pancreatic amylase. This continues the hydrolysis of of any remaining starch to maltose.

19

How is maltose broken down?

Maltose is broken down by maltose which is part of the cell surface membrane of epithelial cells that line the ileum (membrane bound disaccharide). Maltose is broken down by maltose into alpha glucose

20

Where does lipid digestion occur?

Only in the lumen of the small intestine

21

Name the bond hydrolysed by lipases.

Ester bond.

22

Name the bond hydrolysed by endopeptidases.

Peptide bond

23

Why does starch digestion stop in the stomach?

Amylase is denatured by the hydrochloride acid.

Hydrogen bonds break.
Changes tertiary structure of enzyme.
Changes shape of active site.
No ES complexes formed.