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Flashcards in Enzymes and Digestion Deck (288)
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1

What are the seven food groups? How do you remember these?

carbohydrates (starch and gluose)

protein

lipids (fats and oils)

fibre

vitamins

minerals

water

Careless Pauline Let Finnian Vaporise My Water

 

2

What are simple sugars called?

monosaccharides

3

What are complex sugars called?

polysaccharides

4

What is starch made of?

thousands of glucose molecules

5

Give an example of a simple sugar (monosaccharide)

glucose

6

Give an example of a complex sugar (polysaccharide)

starch

7

What are carbohydrates?

they include simple sugars (monosaccharides) such as glucose and complex sugars (polysaccharides) such as starch (which is made of thousands of glucose molecules)

8

What are elements of glucose?

Carbon

Hydrogen

Oxygen

(C, H, O)

9

What is the formula for glucose?

C6H12O6

10

What is the equation for respiration?

glucose + oxygen ---> carbon dioxide + water + ATP

C6H12O6 + 6O2 ---> 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP

11

What is the function of glucose?

short-term energy supply which is used in respiration

12

What are some sources of glucose?

e.g. in fruits, sweets

13

What are elements of starch?

Carbon

Hydrogen

Oxygen

(C, H, O)

14

What is the structure of starch?

thousands of glucose molecules

15

What is the function of starch?

short-term energy storage which is broken down into glucose for respiration

16

What is the function of starch in plants?

stores starch

17

What is the function of starch in humans?

eat foods containing starch which broken down into glucose in digestion

18

What are some sources of starch?

e.g. in bread, potatoes, pasta, rice

19

If you need a quick burst of energy what food should you eat and why?

eat food containing glucose (instead of starch) as it doesn't need to be digested and can be absorbed into the bloodstream directly

20

What are the elements of protein?

Carbon

Hydrogen

Oxygen

Nitrogen

Sulphur

(C, H, O, N, S)

21

What is the structure of proteins?

chains of amino acids (20 different types)

22

What is the function of proteins?

there are a variety of functions:

needed to maintain cell function

needed to grow and repair cells and tissues

23

What are some sources of proteins?

e.g. meat, fish, eggs, dairy

24

What is the function of proteins in enzymes?

enzymes speed up chemical reactions in your body, e.g., the breakdown of food or respiration

25

What is the function of proteins in muscles?

muscle proteins called actin and myosin enable all muscular movement

26

What is the function of proteins in cellular messengers?

receptor proteins on the cell membrane transmit signals to other proteins inside cells

27

What is the function of proteins in antibodies?

antibodies are proteins that help defend your body against harmful microbes

28

What is the function of proteins in hairs and nails?

a protein called keratin forms your hair and fingernails

29

What is the function of proteins in the brain and nerves?

ion channel proteins control nervous system signalling by allowing ions in and out of nerve cells

30

What is the function of proteins in blood?

the haemoglobin protein carries oxygen in your blood to every part of your body