Enzymes, Cellular Respiration,Photosynthesis Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Enzymes, Cellular Respiration,Photosynthesis Deck (18):
0

Enzymes

-All reactions require enzymes.
-Enzymes are proteins made up of amino acids.
-Enzymes control the rate of reactions.

1

Photosynthesis formula

6CO2 + 6H2O ---> C6H12O6 + 6O2
Carbon dioxide and water ---> Glucose and oxygen
(Uses sunlight and chlorophyll to convert)

2

Cellular Respiration formula

C6H12O6 + 6O2 ---> 6H2O + 6CO2 + 36-38 ATP
Glucose + Oxygen -> Water + Carbon Dioxide + Energy ( ATP )

3

Enzyme structure and substrate

-Amino acids connected by peptide bonds.
-Enzyme can only work on one substrate
-Very specific
-Enzyme and substrate connect at the active site

4

Naming enzymes

End in -ase
Protein --> protease

5

How does temperature affect enzymes?

-Enzymes move faster at warmer temperatures.
-Too hot and enzymes become denatured( loses shape and cannot match substrate)
-Too cold become slow and inactive ( fixable)

6

Optimum range

Temperature range at which an enzyme works.

7

How do pH levels affect enzymes?

-pH affects enzymes by breaking bonds
-Eg. Stomach has a pH of 1-2 ( very acidic), we would use the enzyme protease because there is protein in the stomach and then optimum range would be 1-2 pH.

8

Cellular Respiration

Cellular respiration works to break down glucose from photosynthesis into energy (ATP).
- Without photosynthesis there is no cellular respiration.
-Occurs in the mitochondria

9

What is ATP

-Adenosine triphosphate
-A molecule with 3 phosphates on it.

10

ADP

-Adenosine Diphosphate
-A molecule with two phosphates on it

11

ATP --> ADP

-When a phosphate is broken off from ATP to make ADP energy is released from the broken bond.
-The phosphate is then joined back onto ADP by glucose to make ATP.
-RECYCLED by cellular respiration.

12

Metabolic pathway ( Cellular respiration )

Cellular respiration is a metabolic pathway that breaks down carbohydrates.
Metabolic - Rate of chemical reactions that occur in our body.

13

Cellular respiration process facts

-Exergonic ( produces energy) as glucose is broke into CO2 and H2O.
-Also catabolic( to break down) because larger glucose breaks into smaller molecules.

14

Glycolosis

- ANAEROBIC
-Takes place in cytosol of mitochondria
-Glucose splits into two and makes 2 ATP.
- If no oxygen fermentation is produced in plants ( alcohol) and lactic acid is produced in animals.

15

Krebs Cycle

-AEROBIC
-Produces 2 ATP
-Gives off CO2
-Occurs in matrix

16

Electron Transport Chain

-AEROBIC
-Up to 34 ATP produced
-Produces H2O
-Occurs in cristae

17

Lactic acid

-If doing high-intensity exercise and body can't produce oxygen quick enough it switches to anaerobic respiration.
-This produces less ATP and lactic acid as a bi-product.
-More effort = more lactic acid produced