Flashcards in Enzymes, Cellular Respiration,Photosynthesis Deck (18):
-All reactions require enzymes.
-Enzymes are proteins made up of amino acids.
-Enzymes control the rate of reactions.
6CO2 + 6H2O ---> C6H12O6 + 6O2
Carbon dioxide and water ---> Glucose and oxygen
(Uses sunlight and chlorophyll to convert)
Cellular Respiration formula
C6H12O6 + 6O2 ---> 6H2O + 6CO2 + 36-38 ATP
Glucose + Oxygen -> Water + Carbon Dioxide + Energy ( ATP )
Enzyme structure and substrate
-Amino acids connected by peptide bonds.
-Enzyme can only work on one substrate
-Enzyme and substrate connect at the active site
End in -ase
Protein --> protease
How does temperature affect enzymes?
-Enzymes move faster at warmer temperatures.
-Too hot and enzymes become denatured( loses shape and cannot match substrate)
-Too cold become slow and inactive ( fixable)
Temperature range at which an enzyme works.
How do pH levels affect enzymes?
-pH affects enzymes by breaking bonds
-Eg. Stomach has a pH of 1-2 ( very acidic), we would use the enzyme protease because there is protein in the stomach and then optimum range would be 1-2 pH.
Cellular respiration works to break down glucose from photosynthesis into energy (ATP).
- Without photosynthesis there is no cellular respiration.
-Occurs in the mitochondria
What is ATP
-A molecule with 3 phosphates on it.
-A molecule with two phosphates on it
ATP --> ADP
-When a phosphate is broken off from ATP to make ADP energy is released from the broken bond.
-The phosphate is then joined back onto ADP by glucose to make ATP.
-RECYCLED by cellular respiration.
Metabolic pathway ( Cellular respiration )
Cellular respiration is a metabolic pathway that breaks down carbohydrates.
Metabolic - Rate of chemical reactions that occur in our body.
Cellular respiration process facts
-Exergonic ( produces energy) as glucose is broke into CO2 and H2O.
-Also catabolic( to break down) because larger glucose breaks into smaller molecules.
-Takes place in cytosol of mitochondria
-Glucose splits into two and makes 2 ATP.
- If no oxygen fermentation is produced in plants ( alcohol) and lactic acid is produced in animals.
-Produces 2 ATP
-Gives off CO2
-Occurs in matrix
Electron Transport Chain
-Up to 34 ATP produced
-Occurs in cristae