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Flashcards in Eosinophils Deck (72):
1

What are eosinophils?

pleiotropic multifunctional leukocytes, involved in innate and adaptive immune system

one gene influences 2+ seemingly unrelated phenotypes

2

hematopoietic stem cell --> common myeloid progenitor --> eosinophil lineage committed progenitor or granulocyte monocyte progenitor

eosinophil development

3

transcription factors:

GATA-1
PU.1
C/EBP

the specificity is about these three particular factors that makes eosinophils happen!

4

Which is the most important transcriptions factor for eosinophil development?

GATA-1

5

Cytokines needed for development of eosinophils?

IL-5, IL-3, GM-CSF that come from activated t cells

6

Most specific cytokine to eosinophil lineage?

IL-5

7

eosinophil granules are acidic or basic?

basic

8

stains to highlight eosinophil?

eosin, giemsa, luna

9

sighthound (and golden retrievers) eosinophils are unique how?

lack visible granules, appear as cells with slightly segmented nuclei, gray cytoplasm with appearance of vacuoles

10

feline eosinophils appear as___

rod-shaped granules, do not stain with peroxidase

11

horse eosinophil granules are:

largest of domestic species

12

eosinophil organelles:

1) primary
2)small granules
3)secretory vesicles
4)crystalloid granules

13

Name the 4 types of eosinophil organelles:

1) primary
2)small granules
3)secretory vesicles
4)crystalloid granules

14

Describe primary granules of eosinophils

round, varied in size, lack core
made up of Charcot Leyden-Crystral Protein (CLC-P)
10% of total protein, seen at sites of inflammation with stroma around crystals

this is a primate specific granule!

15

Small granules

contain various enzymes (arylsulfatse, eosinophil peroxidase, acid phosphatase)

release these ROS

16

EPO improves which functions?

mast cell secretion is enhanced
neutrophil aggregation and adhesion is increased
microbe killing is potentiated by phagocytes
EPO-tumor cells are spontaneously lysed

17

Secretory vesicles

AKA: sombrero vesicles, vesiculotubular structures

allows for prolonged effector functions

transort proteins from synthesis to plasma membrane

18

crystalloid grnaules

largest of granules; electron-dense core made of major basic protein (MBP)

electron Lucent matrix (ECP, EPO, EDN)

19

Major basic protein:

toxic! cytotoxin, kills helminths, platelet agonists to encourage clotting

IL-8 is released more when MBP is around

20

eosinophilic cationic protein

in electron Lucent matrix

promoted mast cell degranulation
involved in gordon phenomenon (neurotoxicity)

21

eosinophilic derived neurotoxin

high antiviral activity; weak toxin for parasitic and mammalian cells; high mutation rate allows it to keep up with widespread antiviral activity

22

eosinophils peroxidase

toxic, cytotoxic, oxidative damage, bactericidal

23

Eosinophils store granules that are immediate and ready to go! t/f

T - only eos store cytokines and preformed mediators; this is different from T or B cells (the need time to make their cytokines)

24

lipid bodies

involved in eocosanoid inflammatory mediation, effector functions

in eosinophil containing eicosanoid, specific to make prostaglandins, leukotrienes involved in inflammation

25

know arachidonic acid metabolic and inflammation!

LTD4 is only one produced in eosinophil

26

what's the lifespan of an eosinophil?

2-5 days, cytokines can increase lifespan to 14 days; float in blood 8-18 hours (<6% of tissue dwelling leukocytes)

27

where do eosniophils live in homeostasis?

GI tract, lungs, adipose tissue, mammary glands, uterus, thymus

28

where do eosniophils live in homeostasis?

GI tract, lungs, adipose tissue, mammary glands, uterus, thymus

29

Eotaxin 1 AKA

CCL-11

30

Chemoattraction and trafficking

chemoattraction regulated by adhesion molecules, cytokines and chemokine.

31

what are flame figures?

degenerate eosinophils; collagen is fine...the eosinophils are overabundant and degranulate at the same time

32

most important chemokine pulling into tissue?

eotaxin 1

33

chemoattraction occurs via:

chemokine; eotaxin-1 (binds to CCR-3 which is an adhesion molecule found on the eosinophil), RANTES

Cytokines: IL-3, IL-5, IL-13

Leukotrienes: LTB4

HIstamine
PAF
C5a

34

rolling, adhesion, migration process occurs via

transient attachment of eosinophils to endothelial components

35

Adhesion is induced by

chemokine: eotaxins, RANTES, MCP-3) which ....______

36

integrins on endothelial cell

expressed beta 1,2,7 integrin!

37

RANTES means?

regulation on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted

38

CCL5 aka

RANTES

39

cytokines that enhance integrin formation on eosinophil:

IL-4, IL-13 with are promoted with Th2 response

40

cytokines that enhance integrin formation on eosinophil:

IL-4, IL-13 with are promoted with Th2 response

41

eosinophilic dermatitis and edema

red plaques, erythematous macule, acute; GI disease coincides development of these lesions

42

eosinophilic dermatitis and edema

red plaques, erythematous macule, acute; GI disease coincides development of these lesions

43

surface markers important to activate eosinophils:

TNF-alpha, GM-CSF, IL-5, IL-5, IFN-gamma (inflammatory)

Complement: C3a, C5a

Lipid mediators: PAF, LTC4

B cell Fc receptors IgA, IgG

44

LTD4 is made by eosinophil in which pathway?

arachidonic acid

45

degranulation occurs via (4 mechanisms):

1) classical exocytosis
2) compound exocytosis
3) piecemeal degranulation
4) cytolysis

46

classical degranulation:

eosinophil (snap is docking complex), and SNARE is mechanism to help get it all out

47

classical degranulation:

via SNAP is docking complex, and SNARE is mechanism to help get it all out

48

Hypodense eosinophils can predict severity of allergic disease

- hypotenuse after deganulation

49

what breeds are often associated with canine eosinophilic granuloma

husky, CKCS, GSD

50

what breeds are often associated with canine eosinophilic granuloma

husky, CKCS, GSD
ulcerated plaque in oral cavity
histo: palisading granuloma, flame figures

51

what breeds are often associated with canine eosinophilic granuloma

husky, CKCS, GSD
ulcerated plaque in oral cavity
histo: palisading granuloma, flame figures

52

hypereosinophilic syndrome

in tissue and in blood, not secondary to another condition
- intense release of eosinophils
-intestinal loops are huge

-John Angus treated with CsA and cetirizine

53

what promotes eosinophilia?

extrinsic or intrinsic; primary or secondary

IL-5, CCL-11 (eotaxin) binding CCR3; IL-25; IL-33; Leukotriene B4; complement

54

t/f hypereosinophilic syndrome affects the skin of dogs

F - no cutaneous involvement

idiopathic in rottweiler, also gets neuropathy, splendor hoepplii bodies but can't figure out why

55

three manifestations of feline eosinophilic granuloma complex

1) eosinophilic granuloma - in mouth, chin, caudal thigh
2) indolent ulcer = rodent ulcer =eosinophilic ulcer (upper lip near philtrum)
3) eosinophilic plaque

56

chediak-higashi syndrome is autosomal recessive or dominant?

recessive
Persian cats, yellow eyes, blue smoke hair

has giant granules

57

horses have eosinophils on cytology with:

endoparasites, allergy, parasitism, furunculosos, granuloma, axillary necrotic...meeds

58

multi systemic eosinophilic epitheliotropic disease (MEEDs)

no peripheral eosinophilia; crusting in various areas



59

multi systemic eosinophilic epitheliotropic disease (MEEDs)

no peripheral eosinophilia; crusting in various areas



60

equine sterile eosinophilic F&F

lesions anywhere on body; variably pruritic, steroids can help

61

nodular collagenolytic granuloma

most common nonneoplastic nodular skin disease of the horse;

62

interferon alpha

inhibits eosinophil degranulation and mediator release, steroid sparing agent if diseases of myelopoeisis

63

CsA

inhibits T cell cytokine release, so less eosinophils

64

Leukotriene antagonists (human)

block generation of eosinophil chemoattractants

65

antihistamines

cetirizine inhibits eosinophil recruitment and accumulation

66

t/f: IL-31 is a known eosinophilic chemotactic factor

true

67

Th1 or Th2 produces more eosinophil friendly cytokines

Th2

68

Eosin has 5 letters in it!

Il-5

69

LTB4

slow reacting substance of anaphylaxis

70

if a human is prone to asthma, and you die ibuprofen, when they have asthma attack, it will be worse/better

worse! COX blocked, so more arachidonic acid is around, so higher LT concentrations

so people with asthma shouldn't be on chronic NSAIDs

71

eosinophilia differentials:

addisions, parasitism, ....add to this

72

where in GI tract does eosinophils accumulate?

eotaxin 1 is always expressed in lamina propria