Epidemiology and Evidenced Based Practice Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Epidemiology and Evidenced Based Practice Deck (70):
1

define epidemiology

study of Distribution and Determinants of health and illness in human populations for the purpose of controlling disease and health problems

2

what does the term Distribution mean r/t epidemiology

spread (who, what, where, when of diseases)

3

what does the term Determinants mean r/t epidemiology

the why of diseases

4

current epidemiological news today

Zika virus
HPV vaccine

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Distribution r/t the Zika virus

Who = host = pregnant women, men (sexual partners)
What = flaki virus
When = hottest times of year when mosquito's are most prevalent
Where = S. America, Florida, Caribbean (demographics)

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Determinant r/t the Zika virus

Why (care?) = causes microcephaly

7

Distribution r/t HPV vaccine

Who - women 14-34 years of age
What - human papillomavirus
When - adolescence
Where - America

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Determinant r/t HPV vaccine

Why - decreased risk of HPV infection

9

who is John Snow

soldier against disease (Cholera) in the mid 1800's in England

10

what did John Snow do?

asked people who was dying, where, what they were dying of and when it was all occurring

11

who is known as the father of public health/epidemiology

John Snow

12

noxious miasma theory

"pig pen" dirty, poor people theory

13

what is cholera

a water born disease, bacterial

14

taking the pump handle of means

getting to the source/issue

15

epidemiological triad

agent (disease process/cholera)
host
environment
**these factors interacting cause disease**

16

wheel of causation

inner circle - genetic core
middle circle - host
outer circle - biologic, social, physical environment

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web of causation helps to

determine the why (determinant)

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primary prevention

promote health before disease/behavior occurs
eg: Teen Pregnancy (condoms, pill); Vaccines (flu)

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secondary prevention

state of disease - not interventions
eg: Teen Pregnancy (screening for preg. itself); HIV tested; assessing, interviewing, identify people (domestic violence)

20

tertiary prevention

preventing death/disability from disease state
eg: Teen Pregnancy (prenatal care)

21

define endemic

usual presence of disease within a geographic area
(flu virus is endemic to North-Eastern U.S. in winter)

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define epidemic

significant increase in number of cases of a disease (beyond endemic)

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define pandemic

an epidemic affecting multiple countries/regions of the world

24

define common source outbreak

exposure to a common, harmful substance

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define propagated outbreak

transmission of infectious agent from one person to the next

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how to calculate rates

Events measured (infant deaths) are in the Numerator
All who could have died are in the Denominator
Specific period of time must be indicated
Multiply by base (multiple of 10)

27

what is a crude rate

occurrence of a health problem in a community at a certain time

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what is an adjusted rate

adjust for the effected (gender, ethnicity) - removes differences in populations

29

***what is relative risk ratio

your chances of getting disease if exposed
incidence rate in an exposed group vs the non-exposed group:ratio

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define ratio

fraction representing relationship between 2 numbers

31

define rate

state of health in a specific group of people in a given time period - measurement

32

rate calculation

number of events in a population at a specific period/total population

33

crude mortality rate calculation

number of deaths occurring in 1 yr/midyear population

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cause specific mortality rate calculation

number of deaths from a stated cause (cardiovascular disease) in 1 yr/midyear population

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age specific mortality rate calculation

number of people in a specific age group (ages 5-15) dying in 1 yr/midyear population of the specific age group

36

infant mortality rate calculation

number of death under 1 yr of age in 1 yr/number of live births in the same year

37

infant mortality rate is used as greatest indicator of health in certain country, t or f

true - reflects how healthy Mom is

38

define incidence rates

new cases in a community

39

define prevalence

who already has it - number of existing cases

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*define sensitivity

true positive - ability of a test to find those that have a disease

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*define specificity

true negatives - ability of a test to find those who truly do not have a disease

42

term for incidence rate in exposed group and the incidence rate in the non-exposed group

relative risk ratio

43

West Nile Virus is endemic to summer time in North Eastern U.S., T or F

True

44

Malaria is endemic to Ecuadorian parts of the world, T or F

True

45

host factor that influences peoples malarial infections

****genetic traits - sickle cell trait is protective against malaria

46

secondary prevention of tuberculosis

PPD plus chest x-ray (white infiltrates)

47

primary prevention of tuberculosis

vaccine or PPE (personal protective equipment, masks) - will get positive PPD

48

is PPD sensitive or specific

sensitive; chest x-ray is specific

49

Tertiary prevention of tuberculosis

rifampin and INH

50

what are behavior change models

models that assist clients, groups and communities to redirect activities toward health and wellness

51

how many behavior change models are there

3

52

what are the 3 behavior change models

learning model
health belief model
trans-theoretical model

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what is the learning model

people do things that reward them - incremental steps towards a final goal

54

what is the health belief model

Cues (r/t smoking) - friends/drinking
Barriers - friends do it/habit
Benefits - lower risk for lung cancer

55

what is the trans-theoretical model (weight loss, smoking)

Precontemplation - grandma smoked never got lung cxr, lived forever
Contemplation - know I need to stop smoking, but its working for me right now
Preparation - quitting on sons birthday
Action - i quit yesterday
Maintenance - I've been sober for 6 months
Relapse - I just used again after being sober for 6 months

56

when asking questions to find (smokers) you are doing which type of prevention

Secondary prevention - to intervene at an early stage of disease

57

what is motivational interviewing***

Client-centered communication to elicit change
helps clients explore/resolve ambivalence to change
ADDRESSES AMBIVALENCE
move from pre-contemplation to contemplation

58

"motivation for change occurs when people perceive a discrepancy between where they are and where they want to be" T or F

True

59

descriptive studies describe

Distribution - disease according to person, place, time
summarizes health event

60

analytic studies investigate

Determinant - causes and associations between factors (the why)

61

cohort studies look at (analytic)

graduates of nursing school from a certain year(s), follows them for life

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cross-sectional studies look at (analytic)

cross - section of student population right now, assess for (risky behaviors/smoking..)

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retrospective studies look at (analytic)

incidence of disease process in a specific year (looking back)

64

analytical studies are trying to find

causation - the why

65

2 types of analytical studies

Cohort studies - following over a period of time
Case-Control studies - retrospective

66

golden standard of research studies

experimental designs

67

2 categories of experimental designs

preventative intervention (primary) - before exposure to disease, tests and intervention
Therapeutic intervention (secondary) - those currently experiencing disease, testing interventions

68

best way for you to know research is valid

having a control group

69

elisa HIV

specific

70

western blot HIV

sensitive - start off with