Epidemiology, Immunization and Levels of Prevention Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Epidemiology, Immunization and Levels of Prevention Deck (19):
1

Specificity

The degree to which those who do not have a disease screen/test negative.
-True negatives

2

Incidence

The frequency with which a disease or disorder appears in a particular population or area at a given time; the rate at which new cases occur during a specific time period

3

Prevalence

The proportion of a population that is affected by a disease or disorder at a particular time; expressed as a percentage.

4

Adolescents: Major causes of death

MVAs
Suicide
Other accidents
Homicide
Malignancy
CV or congenital disease

5

Young adults (20-39): Major causes of death

MVA
Homicide
Suicide
Injuries
Heart disease
AIDS

6

Middle-aged adults: Major causes of death

Heart disease
Accidents
Lung cancer
CVA
Breast and colorectal cancer
COPD

7

Elderly Adult: Major causes of death

Heart disease
CVA
COPD
Pneumonia and/or influenza
Lung and colorectal cancer

8

Primary Prevention

Includes measures to promote health prior to the onset of any recognizable problems:
healthy diet
exercise
avoid tobacco
immunizations

9

Secondary Prevention

Focuses on early identification and treatment of existing problems:
Pap smear, prostate screen, cholesterol screening.
SECONDARY is SCREENING

10

Tertiary Prevention

Includes rehabilitation and restoration of health

11

Antigen

Substances capable of inducing a specific immune response

12

Antibodies

Molecules synthesized in reaction to an antigen

13

Active immunity

Conferred by antibody formation stimulated with a specific antigen such as typhoid fever immunization and toxoids

14

Passive Immunity

Conferred by the introduction of antibody proteins such as gamma globulin injections or maternal immunity transferred to the fetus

15

Pneumococcal Vaccine

Decreases pneumococcal bacteremia in the elderly, does not decrease pneumonia in the elderly.

16

Hep A vaccine

Should be considered for military personnel, travelers to endemic areas, and men who have sex with men, among others

17

Hep B vaccine

Should be given to all health care workers and high risk patietns including sexually active adults

18

Meningococcal Vaccine

-Approved for ages 2-55
-Recommended routinely for adolescents at 11-12 year old visit and "catch up" for college, military, immunocompromised, travelers;
-Clinical efficacy not established; no revaccinations recommendations at this time.
-Cost-effectiveness questionable.

19

Sensitivity

The degree to which those who have a disease screen/test positive
-True positives