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Flashcards in Epilepsy Deck (17):
1

What is status epilepticus?

Continuous/recurrent seizures for >30 minutes without regaining consciousness. Neurological emergency.

2

In which age groups does the incidence of epilepsy peak? Why?

Children: primary idiopathic or developmental.

Elderly: acquired due to brain disease, e.g. stroke, dementia

3

What happens at a neuronal level during seizures?

Sudden and uncontrolled repetitive and synchronous activation of networks of neurones

4

What’s a partial seizure?

Focal. Patient experiences seizure aura or focal motor movements. Limited to one brain area maybe with other anatomically connected areas.

5

Generalised seizure

No focus, sudden loss of consciousness followed by tonic clinic limb movements. Abnormal brain activity involving large areas of cerebral cortex

6

Simple vs complex seizure

Simple: preservation of awareness

Complex: alerted awareness

7

EEG is good for...

Identifying specific epilepsy syndromes

Assessing and recording seizures if there’s a known trigger or seizures are frequent

Assessing and recording seizures over a few days if there’s diagnostic uncertainty/pre-surgery/resistant

8

Which antiepileptic drugs are enzyme inducing?

Carbamazepine,
oxcarbazepine,
phenytoin,
phenobarbital,
primidone,
topiramate

9

Which antiepileptic drugs are teratogenic?

Sodium Valproate!!!
Phenytoin
Phenobarbital
Primidone
Carbamazepine
Topiramate

10

Treatment for partial seizures

Carbamazepine or Lamotrigene

can use: oxcarbazepine, levotiracetam, topiramate, sodium valproate

11

Absence seizure treatment

Sodium valproate or ethosuximide

Can use topiramate or levotiracetam

12

Myoclonic seizure treatment

Sodium valproate, levetiracetam, or clonozepam

Topiramate

13

Generalised tonic clonic, Atonic, or Tonic seizure treatment

Sodium Valproate

levetiracetam, topiramate, lamotrigene

14

Side effects of sodium valproate

Weight gain, hair loss, fatigue

15

Side effects of levetiracetam

Mood swings

16

Side effects of topiramate

Sedation, dysphasia, weight loss

17

What is the mechanism of action of lamotrigine?

Blockade of voltage sensitive sodium channels