Flashcards in Epilepsy Deck (17):
What is status epilepticus?
Continuous/recurrent seizures for >30 minutes without regaining consciousness. Neurological emergency.
In which age groups does the incidence of epilepsy peak? Why?
Children: primary idiopathic or developmental.
Elderly: acquired due to brain disease, e.g. stroke, dementia
What happens at a neuronal level during seizures?
Sudden and uncontrolled repetitive and synchronous activation of networks of neurones
What’s a partial seizure?
Focal. Patient experiences seizure aura or focal motor movements. Limited to one brain area maybe with other anatomically connected areas.
No focus, sudden loss of consciousness followed by tonic clinic limb movements. Abnormal brain activity involving large areas of cerebral cortex
Simple vs complex seizure
Simple: preservation of awareness
Complex: alerted awareness
EEG is good for...
Identifying specific epilepsy syndromes
Assessing and recording seizures if there’s a known trigger or seizures are frequent
Assessing and recording seizures over a few days if there’s diagnostic uncertainty/pre-surgery/resistant
Which antiepileptic drugs are enzyme inducing?
Which antiepileptic drugs are teratogenic?
Treatment for partial seizures
Carbamazepine or Lamotrigene
can use: oxcarbazepine, levotiracetam, topiramate, sodium valproate
Absence seizure treatment
Sodium valproate or ethosuximide
Can use topiramate or levotiracetam
Myoclonic seizure treatment
Sodium valproate, levetiracetam, or clonozepam
Generalised tonic clonic, Atonic, or Tonic seizure treatment
levetiracetam, topiramate, lamotrigene
Side effects of sodium valproate
Weight gain, hair loss, fatigue
Side effects of levetiracetam
Side effects of topiramate
Sedation, dysphasia, weight loss