Flashcards in EQ1 the global hydrological cycle Deck (24)
Name an input to the global hydrological cycle
Name the 5 storages of the global hydrological cycle
Give 5 flows of the global hydrological cycle
Surface run off
Give 4 outputs of the global hydrological cycle
Define a closed system?
No inputs occur from outside and nothing is lost, however in terms of the global hydrological cycle , water’s nature and form changes all the time
What two processes drive the glob. Hydrological cycle?
- Solar energy (causing evaporation and trans)
- GPE (keeps water moving through the system in a sequence of inputs, outputs, stores and flows)
Seasonal thaws increase surface saturation and thinning permafrost 1 if this thaw continues water flows away and is lost
define global water budget?
the annual balance between precipitation, evapotranspiration and runoff
give the uses for the global water budget
useful as a national or even a regional scale , provides a useful indication of the amount of water available for human use.
Warm moist air is forced up to rise over high areas- air cools condensed , forming clouds and rain, air
descends and warms
During periods of high temperatures - sun heats lad. And air above and warm air rises to cool and condense forming clouds = possibility of rain
Most rain in UK is frontal-
Formed as a part of a depression (low pressure area) when warm air meets colder polar air and its forced t I rise over the denser colder air - forming rain along both warm and cold fronts
What is the global water budget
The differences between the inputs of water and outputs of water in any given area
Amount of time a water molecule will stay in a store
define fossil water
untapped ancient stores of freshwater which exist in the polar regions and beneath deserts - technology now allows it to be accessed through aquifers
what are annual fluxes
the water transferred globally by flows known as fluxes.
what is the ITCZ
- the Inter-tropical convergence zone where strong convectional currents lift air so that it cools and condenses into clouds causing heavy rainstorms
- most of worlds rainfall is created by the ITCZ so this is the tropospheric rivers are the biggest flux
Blue Water: Freshwater stored in rivers, streams and lakes – the visible part of the hydrological cycle.
Green Water: Freshwater stored in the soil and vegetation – the invisible part of the hydrological cycle.
Residence time: The average time a water molecule will spend in a store or reservoir.
ground water abstraction
Ground Water Abstraction
In some places water is taken from aquifers at a rate higher than the replacement level. This causes reduced groundwater flow and a lower water tale.
The annual variation in the discharge or flow of a river at a particular point- measures in cumecs
Majority of flow is supplied by groundwater between periods of rain
River experiences a period of seasonally Hugh discharge followed by low discharge - typical of rivers taht depend on glacial melt water or seasonal storms (monsoons)
Often in temperate climates with mountainous regions