EQ1 the global hydrological cycle Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in EQ1 the global hydrological cycle Deck (24)
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1

Name an input to the global hydrological cycle

Precipitation

2

Name the 5 storages of the global hydrological cycle

Groundwater storage
Vegetation storage
Interception
Channel storage
Surface storage

3

Give 5 flows of the global hydrological cycle

Infiltration
channel flow
Percolation
Surface run off
Groundwater flow

4

Give 4 outputs of the global hydrological cycle

Evap.
Transpiration .
Evapotranspiration
River discharge

5

Define a closed system?

No inputs occur from outside and nothing is lost, however in terms of the global hydrological cycle , water’s nature and form changes all the time

6

What two processes drive the glob. Hydrological cycle?

- Solar energy (causing evaporation and trans)
- GPE (keeps water moving through the system in a sequence of inputs, outputs, stores and flows)

7

Cryosphere loss-

Seasonal thaws increase surface saturation and thinning permafrost 1 if this thaw continues water flows away and is lost

8

define global water budget?

the annual balance between precipitation, evapotranspiration and runoff

9

give the uses for the global water budget

useful as a national or even a regional scale , provides a useful indication of the amount of water available for human use.

10

Orographic rainfall

Warm moist air is forced up to rise over high areas- air cools condensed , forming clouds and rain, air
descends and warms

11

Conventional rainfall

During periods of high temperatures - sun heats lad. And air above and warm air rises to cool and condense forming clouds = possibility of rain

12

Frontal rainfall

Most rain in UK is frontal-
Formed as a part of a depression (low pressure area) when warm air meets colder polar air and its forced t I rise over the denser colder air - forming rain along both warm and cold fronts

13

What is the global water budget

The differences between the inputs of water and outputs of water in any given area

14

Residence time

Amount of time a water molecule will stay in a store

15

define fossil water

untapped ancient stores of freshwater which exist in the polar regions and beneath deserts - technology now allows it to be accessed through aquifers

16

what are annual fluxes

the water transferred globally by flows known as fluxes.

17

what is the ITCZ

- the Inter-tropical convergence zone where strong convectional currents lift air so that it cools and condenses into clouds causing heavy rainstorms
- most of worlds rainfall is created by the ITCZ so this is the tropospheric rivers are the biggest flux

18

blue water?

Blue Water: Freshwater stored in rivers, streams and lakes – the visible part of the hydrological cycle.

19

green water

Green Water: Freshwater stored in the soil and vegetation – the invisible part of the hydrological cycle.

20

residence time

Residence time: The average time a water molecule will spend in a store or reservoir.

21

ground water abstraction

Ground Water Abstraction
In some places water is taken from aquifers at a rate higher than the replacement level. This causes reduced groundwater flow and a lower water tale.

22

River regime?

The annual variation in the discharge or flow of a river at a particular point- measures in cumecs
Majority of flow is supplied by groundwater between periods of rain

23

Simple regime

River experiences a period of seasonally Hugh discharge followed by low discharge - typical of rivers taht depend on glacial melt water or seasonal storms (monsoons)

Often in temperate climates with mountainous regions

24

Complex regimes

Larger rivers cross several different relief and climates
and therefore experience the effects of different seasonal climatic events - this is true of rivers like the Mississippi or Ganges