Flashcards in Equilibria Deck (11):
Both forward and backward reactions are proceeding at the same rate
Reactants and products cannot escape. In closed systems the forward and reverse reactions continue until dynamic equilibrium is reached.
Reactants and products can escape. The open air or a fume cupboard is an example of an open system. In an open system, the products are removed as soon as they are formed, so the reverse reaction is not allowed to take place.
Le Chatelier's principle
If a constraint is imposed on a system at equilibrium, then the system will respond in such a way as to counteract the effect of that constraint.
When the concentration of one of the species is increased
The system will move to remove that species. When the concentration of one of the species is decreased, the system will move to replace that species
When the pressure is increased
The system will move to the side with fewer moles in order to decrease the pressure. When the pressure is decreased, the system will move to the side with more moles in order to increase the pressure.
When the temperature is increased
The system will move in the endothermic direction in order to decrease the temperature. When the temperature is decreased, the system will move in the exothermic direction in order to increase the temperature.
When a catalyst is added
The rates of the forward and reverse reactions are increased by the same amount and the position of equilibrium is thus unaffected
In industrial equilibria, there are three key factors which must be considered:
1. The yield of product
2. The rate of reaction
3. The cost of maintaining the reaction conditions
A carbon-neutral process
No net carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere.