Erythrocytes - Biochemistry Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Erythrocytes - Biochemistry Deck (21):
1

What is the lifespan of red blood cells?

120 days

2

What are the globular haemoglobin proteins broken down into in the process of destroying old red blood cells?

Amino Acids which then enter the blood stream

3

What organ produces EPO?

Kidney

4

Name the precursor cells for erythrocytes in order of maturation.

Proerythroblast
Polychromatic erythroblast
Orthochromatic erythrblast
Reticulocyte
Mature erythrocyte

5

What does a reticulocyte contain?

Residual ribosomal RNA

6

How do RBCs synthesise ATP?

Glycolysis. This is the only route as there is no mitochondria red blood cells are unable to undergo aerobic respiration.

7

What two important substances are made through the hexose monophosphate shunt?

Glucosw
NADPH

8

What substance helps keep iron in RBCs in Fe2+ state? How is this produced?

NADH

Glycolysis

9

What is NADPH important for in red blood cells?

Maintaining adequate levels of glutathione

10

What three peptides make up glutathione?

Glutamate
Cysteine
Glycine

11

Which substance is vital to combat oxidative stress in red blood cells?

Reduced glutathione

12

What does reduced glutathione do?

Combats oxidative stress (due to the effect of free radicals) in RBCs

13

Which substance is the primary intermediate in oxidative damage and what substance detoxifies this is RBCs?

Hydrogen peroxide
Detoxified by reduced glutathione

14

What condition causes a lack of reduced glutathione in RBCs?

Glucose 6 phosphate deficiency

15

What are the three forms in which C02 is carried to lungs?

1. Physically dissolved in solution (10%)
2. Bound to Haemaglobin - Carbamino Haemoglobin (30%)
3. Bicarbonate ion HC03(60%)

16

What enzyme facilitates the formation of bicarbonate?

Carbonic anhydrase

17

How many globin subunits make up adult haemaglobin?

4

18

How many Fe2+ ions can each haem group bind?

1

19

How may oxygen molecules does each haem group bind?

1

20

When fully saturated how much oxygen will 1g of haemaglobin bind?

1.34ml

21

What state must iron be in (oxidated or reduced) in order to bind oxygen?

Reduced